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PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions in germ-free brine shrimp

(2019) TOXINS. 11(12).
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Abstract
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a newly emergent farmed penaeid shrimp bacterial disease originally known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), is causing havoc in the shrimp industry. The causative agent of AHPND was found to be a specific strain of bacteria, e.g., Vibrio and Shewanella sps., that contains pVA1 plasmid (63–70 kb) encoding the binary PirAVP and PirBVP toxins. The PirABVP and toxins are the primary virulence factors of AHPND-causing bacteria that mediates AHPND and mortality in shrimp. Hence, in this study using a germ-free brine shrimp model system, we evaluated the PirABVP toxin-mediated infection process at cellular level, including toxin attachment and subsequent toxin-induced damage to the digestive tract. The results showed that, PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract of brine shrimp larvae and produces characteristic symptoms of AHPND. In the PirABVP-challenged brine shrimp larvae, shedding or sloughing of enterocytes in the midgut and hindgut regions was regularly visualized, and the intestinal lumen was filled with moderately electron-dense cells of variable shapes and sizes. In addition, the observed cellular debris in the intestinal lumen of the digestive tract was found to be of epithelial cell origin. The detailed morphology of the digestive tract demonstrates further that the PirABVP toxin challenge produces focal to extensive necrosis and damages epithelial cells in the midgut and hindgut regions, resulting in pyknosis, cell vacuolisation, and mitochondrial and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) damage to different degrees. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that PirABVP toxins bind to the digestive tract of brine shrimp larvae and seem to be responsible for generating characteristic AHPND lesions and damaging enterocytes in the midgut and hindgut regions.
Keywords
PirAB(VP) toxins, brine shrimp, digestive tract, sloughing, epithelial cells, necrosis, GNOTOBIOTIC ARTEMIA-FRANCISCANA, NECROSIS DISEASE AHPND, VIBRIO-PARAHAEMOLYTICUS, CAUSATIVE AGENT, PIR TOXINS, PROTECTS, INFECTION, SEQUENCE, PLASMID, STRAIN

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MLA
Kumar, Vikash, et al. “PirABVP Toxin Binds to Epithelial Cells of the Digestive Tract and Produce Pathognomonic AHPND Lesions in Germ-Free Brine Shrimp.” TOXINS, vol. 11, no. 12, 2019, doi:10.3390/toxins11120717.
APA
Kumar, V., De Bels, L., Couck, L., Baruah, K., Bossier, P., & Van Den Broeck, W. (2019). PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions in germ-free brine shrimp. TOXINS, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120717
Chicago author-date
Kumar, Vikash, Lobke De Bels, Liesbeth Couck, Kartik Baruah, Peter Bossier, and Wim Van Den Broeck. 2019. “PirABVP Toxin Binds to Epithelial Cells of the Digestive Tract and Produce Pathognomonic AHPND Lesions in Germ-Free Brine Shrimp.” TOXINS 11 (12). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120717.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kumar, Vikash, Lobke De Bels, Liesbeth Couck, Kartik Baruah, Peter Bossier, and Wim Van Den Broeck. 2019. “PirABVP Toxin Binds to Epithelial Cells of the Digestive Tract and Produce Pathognomonic AHPND Lesions in Germ-Free Brine Shrimp.” TOXINS 11 (12). doi:10.3390/toxins11120717.
Vancouver
1.
Kumar V, De Bels L, Couck L, Baruah K, Bossier P, Van Den Broeck W. PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions in germ-free brine shrimp. TOXINS. 2019;11(12).
IEEE
[1]
V. Kumar, L. De Bels, L. Couck, K. Baruah, P. Bossier, and W. Van Den Broeck, “PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions in germ-free brine shrimp,” TOXINS, vol. 11, no. 12, 2019.
@article{8638623,
  abstract     = {{Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a newly emergent farmed penaeid shrimp bacterial disease originally known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), is causing havoc in the shrimp industry. The causative agent of AHPND was found to be a specific strain of bacteria, e.g., Vibrio and Shewanella sps., that contains pVA1 plasmid (63–70 kb) encoding the binary PirAVP and PirBVP toxins. The PirABVP and toxins are the primary virulence factors of AHPND-causing bacteria that mediates AHPND and mortality in shrimp. Hence, in this study using a germ-free brine shrimp model system, we evaluated the PirABVP toxin-mediated infection process at cellular level, including toxin attachment and subsequent toxin-induced damage to the digestive tract. The results showed that, PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract of brine shrimp larvae and produces characteristic symptoms of AHPND. In the PirABVP-challenged brine shrimp larvae, shedding or sloughing of enterocytes in the midgut and hindgut regions was regularly visualized, and the intestinal lumen was filled with moderately electron-dense cells of variable shapes and sizes. In addition, the observed cellular debris in the intestinal lumen of the digestive tract was found to be of epithelial cell origin. The detailed morphology of the digestive tract demonstrates further that the PirABVP toxin challenge produces focal to extensive necrosis and damages epithelial cells in the midgut and hindgut regions, resulting in pyknosis, cell vacuolisation, and mitochondrial and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) damage to different degrees. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that PirABVP toxins bind to the digestive tract of brine shrimp larvae and seem to be responsible for generating characteristic AHPND lesions and damaging enterocytes in the midgut and hindgut regions.}},
  articleno    = {{717}},
  author       = {{Kumar, Vikash and De Bels, Lobke and Couck, Liesbeth and Baruah, Kartik and Bossier, Peter and Van Den Broeck, Wim}},
  issn         = {{2072-6651}},
  journal      = {{TOXINS}},
  keywords     = {{PirAB(VP) toxins,brine shrimp,digestive tract,sloughing,epithelial cells,necrosis,GNOTOBIOTIC ARTEMIA-FRANCISCANA,NECROSIS DISEASE AHPND,VIBRIO-PARAHAEMOLYTICUS,CAUSATIVE AGENT,PIR TOXINS,PROTECTS,INFECTION,SEQUENCE,PLASMID,STRAIN}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{PirABVP toxin binds to epithelial cells of the digestive tract and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions in germ-free brine shrimp}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120717}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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