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Neutron radiography to study water ingress via the interlayer of 3D printed cementitious materials

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Abstract
3D printing of cementitious materials is a newly developing technology in which structural elements are built via a layer-by-layer process. Among the many advantages of this technique, it is also expected to lead to more sustainable structures due to a reduced waste generation nd more efficient structural design, placing materials only where needed. However, the result of this technique is a layered and anisotropic specimen, creating weak interlayers which will not only endanger the structural behaviour, but also affect the durability as they form a preferential path for the ingress of aggressive substances. For the reason, this research study focuses on the transport of water through printed elements, fabricated with different print velocities (i.e. 1.7 cm/s and 3.0 cm/s) and with special attention for the interlayer interface. Water transport was visualised by means of neutron radiography, performed at the Paul Sherrer institute in Villigen. The effect of an increased print velocity is investigated through qualitative and quantitative analyses of the obtained radiographs. First qualitative results showed that for samples printed with a lower printing speed, the water uptake occurs in a more uniform way compared to specimens printed with a higher velocity. In case of a higher printing speed, the water ingress starts more at he sides and this effect becomes more and more pronounced due to the non-uniform distribution of sand particles through the sample. These results are confirmed by representing the water profile at the interface in a quantitative way. Calculation of the amount of water in a specifed zone at the interface shows that, independently from the water distribution, the water uptake after 60 minutes of exposure is higher in case of a low printing speed.
Keywords
3D printing, cementitious materials, interlayer, water ingress, neutron radiography

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MLA
Van Der Putten, Jolien, et al. “Neutron Radiography to Study Water Ingress via the Interlayer of 3D Printed Cementitious Materials.” ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials, edited by V. Caprai and H.J.H. Brouwers, 2019, pp. 130–37.
APA
Van Der Putten, J., Azima, M., Van den Heede, P., Van Mullem, T., De Schutter, G., & Van Tittelboom, K. (2019). Neutron radiography to study water ingress via the interlayer of 3D printed cementitious materials. In V. Caprai & H. J. H. Brouwers (Eds.), ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials (pp. 130–137). Eindhoven.
Chicago author-date
Van Der Putten, Jolien, Mahzad Azima, Philip Van den Heede, Tim Van Mullem, Geert De Schutter, and Kim Van Tittelboom. 2019. “Neutron Radiography to Study Water Ingress via the Interlayer of 3D Printed Cementitious Materials.” In ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials, edited by V. Caprai and H.J.H. Brouwers, 130–37.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Der Putten, Jolien, Mahzad Azima, Philip Van den Heede, Tim Van Mullem, Geert De Schutter, and Kim Van Tittelboom. 2019. “Neutron Radiography to Study Water Ingress via the Interlayer of 3D Printed Cementitious Materials.” In ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials, ed by. V. Caprai and H.J.H. Brouwers, 130–137.
Vancouver
1.
Van Der Putten J, Azima M, Van den Heede P, Van Mullem T, De Schutter G, Van Tittelboom K. Neutron radiography to study water ingress via the interlayer of 3D printed cementitious materials. In: Caprai V, Brouwers HJH, editors. ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials. 2019. p. 130–7.
IEEE
[1]
J. Van Der Putten, M. Azima, P. Van den Heede, T. Van Mullem, G. De Schutter, and K. Van Tittelboom, “Neutron radiography to study water ingress via the interlayer of 3D printed cementitious materials,” in ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials, Eindhoven, 2019, pp. 130–137.
@inproceedings{8637887,
  abstract     = {3D printing of cementitious materials is a newly developing technology in which structural elements are built via a layer-by-layer process. Among the many advantages of this technique, it is also expected to lead to more sustainable structures due to a reduced waste generation nd more efficient structural design, placing materials only where needed. However, the result of this technique is a layered and anisotropic specimen, creating weak interlayers which will not only endanger the structural behaviour, but also affect the durability as they form a preferential path for the ingress of aggressive substances. For the reason, this research study focuses on the transport of water through printed elements, fabricated with different print velocities (i.e. 1.7 cm/s and 3.0 cm/s) and with special attention for the interlayer interface. Water transport was visualised by means of neutron radiography, performed at the Paul Sherrer institute in Villigen. The effect of an increased print velocity is investigated through qualitative and quantitative analyses of the obtained radiographs. First qualitative results showed that for samples printed with a lower printing speed,  the water uptake occurs in a more uniform way compared to specimens printed with a higher velocity. In case of a higher printing speed, the water ingress starts more at he sides and this effect becomes more and more pronounced due to the non-uniform distribution of sand particles through the sample. These results are confirmed by representing the water profile at the interface in a quantitative way. Calculation of the amount of water in a specifed zone at the interface shows that, independently from the water distribution, the water uptake after 60 minutes of exposure is higher in case of a low printing speed.},
  author       = {Van Der Putten, Jolien and Azima, Mahzad and Van den Heede, Philip and Van Mullem, Tim and De Schutter, Geert and Van Tittelboom, Kim},
  booktitle    = {ICSBM 2019 - 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials},
  editor       = {Caprai, V. and Brouwers, H.J.H.},
  keywords     = {3D printing,cementitious materials,interlayer,water ingress,neutron radiography},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Eindhoven},
  pages        = {130--137},
  title        = {Neutron radiography to study water ingress via the interlayer of 3D printed cementitious materials},
  year         = {2019},
}