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In situ photoluminescence of colloidal quantum dots during gas exposure : the role of water and reactive atomic layer deposition precursors

Jakob Kuhs (UGent) , Andreas Werbrouck (UGent) , Natalia Klaudia Zawacka (UGent) , Emile Drijvers (UGent) , Philippe Smet (UGent) , Zeger Hens (UGent) and Christophe Detavernier (UGent)
(2019) ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 11(29). p.26277-26287
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Abstract
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Typically, device integration requires QDs to be embedded in a host material. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is often considered as a deposition technique for such purposes. However, it is known that ALD and vacuum processes often influence the optical properties of QDs in a negative way. Here, we describe an in situ photoluminescence (PL) measurement setup and use it to monitor the PL of QDs under vacuum and during ALD. For CdSe-based core/shell QDs, a reduction in the QD PL was observed upon exposure to vacuum. Water was identified as crucial for maintaining a high PL as evidenced by re-exposure to different gases. Furthermore, we addressed the influence of vacuum, different plasmas (02, H2O, H2, H2S/Ar, and Ar), precursors (trimethylaluminum, diethylzinc, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, and tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium), reactants (H20, H2S, and 03), and ALD processes (A1203, Ti02, Hf02, and ZnS) on QDs. We observed a PL reduction by up to 90% upon plasma treatments. Furthermore, we found that trimethylaluminum and diethylzinc reduced the PL efficiency by more than 70% while exposure to tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium lowered the PL by only 10-20%. Surprisingly, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and H2O, which by themselves had only a minor influence on the QD PL, still caused an 80% drop of the PL efficiency when combined as an ALD process. On the other hand, ALD growth of Hf02 by combining tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium and 03 preserved 80% of the initial PL quantum yield, making it a promising process for QD embedding. These results put forward in situ PL measurements as a versatile technique to identify suitable precursors, reactants and ALD processes for QD embedding and investigate the interaction between QDs and reactive gaseous species in general.
Keywords
atomic layer deposition, quantum dots, in situ photoluminescence, water sensitive, embedding, CdSe/CdS/ZnS, CDSE NANOCRYSTALS, OXIDE, LUMINESCENCE, FILMS, CONFORMALITY, SPECTROSCOPY, ALUMINA, GROWTH, AL2O3, ZNO

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MLA
Kuhs, Jakob, et al. “In Situ Photoluminescence of Colloidal Quantum Dots during Gas Exposure : The Role of Water and Reactive Atomic Layer Deposition Precursors.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 11, no. 29, 2019, pp. 26277–87.
APA
Kuhs, J., Werbrouck, A., Zawacka, N. K., Drijvers, E., Smet, P., Hens, Z., & Detavernier, C. (2019). In situ photoluminescence of colloidal quantum dots during gas exposure : the role of water and reactive atomic layer deposition precursors. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 11(29), 26277–26287.
Chicago author-date
Kuhs, Jakob, Andreas Werbrouck, Natalia Klaudia Zawacka, Emile Drijvers, Philippe Smet, Zeger Hens, and Christophe Detavernier. 2019. “In Situ Photoluminescence of Colloidal Quantum Dots during Gas Exposure : The Role of Water and Reactive Atomic Layer Deposition Precursors.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES 11 (29): 26277–87.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kuhs, Jakob, Andreas Werbrouck, Natalia Klaudia Zawacka, Emile Drijvers, Philippe Smet, Zeger Hens, and Christophe Detavernier. 2019. “In Situ Photoluminescence of Colloidal Quantum Dots during Gas Exposure : The Role of Water and Reactive Atomic Layer Deposition Precursors.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES 11 (29): 26277–26287.
Vancouver
1.
Kuhs J, Werbrouck A, Zawacka NK, Drijvers E, Smet P, Hens Z, et al. In situ photoluminescence of colloidal quantum dots during gas exposure : the role of water and reactive atomic layer deposition precursors. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 2019;11(29):26277–87.
IEEE
[1]
J. Kuhs et al., “In situ photoluminescence of colloidal quantum dots during gas exposure : the role of water and reactive atomic layer deposition precursors,” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 11, no. 29, pp. 26277–26287, 2019.
@article{8637737,
  abstract     = {Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Typically, device integration requires QDs to be embedded in a host material. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is often considered as a deposition technique for such purposes. However, it is known that ALD and vacuum processes often influence the optical properties of QDs in a negative way. Here, we describe an in situ photoluminescence (PL) measurement setup and use it to monitor the PL of QDs under vacuum and during ALD. For CdSe-based core/shell QDs, a reduction in the QD PL was observed upon exposure to vacuum. Water was identified as crucial for maintaining a high PL as evidenced by re-exposure to different gases. Furthermore, we addressed the influence of vacuum, different plasmas (02, H2O, H2, H2S/Ar, and Ar), precursors (trimethylaluminum, diethylzinc, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, and tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium), reactants (H20, H2S, and 03), and ALD processes (A1203, Ti02, Hf02, and ZnS) on QDs. We observed a PL reduction by up to 90% upon plasma treatments. Furthermore, we found that trimethylaluminum and diethylzinc reduced the PL efficiency by more than 70% while exposure to tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium lowered the PL by only 10-20%. Surprisingly, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and H2O, which by themselves had only a minor influence on the QD PL, still caused an 80% drop of the PL efficiency when combined as an ALD process. On the other hand, ALD growth of Hf02 by combining tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium and 03 preserved 80% of the initial PL quantum yield, making it a promising process for QD embedding. These results put forward in situ PL measurements as a versatile technique to identify suitable precursors, reactants and ALD processes for QD embedding and investigate the interaction between QDs and reactive gaseous species in general.},
  author       = {Kuhs, Jakob and Werbrouck, Andreas and Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia and Drijvers, Emile and Smet, Philippe and Hens, Zeger and Detavernier, Christophe},
  issn         = {1944-8244},
  journal      = {ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES},
  keywords     = {atomic layer deposition,quantum dots,in situ photoluminescence,water sensitive,embedding,CdSe/CdS/ZnS,CDSE NANOCRYSTALS,OXIDE,LUMINESCENCE,FILMS,CONFORMALITY,SPECTROSCOPY,ALUMINA,GROWTH,AL2O3,ZNO},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {29},
  pages        = {26277--26287},
  title        = {In situ photoluminescence of colloidal quantum dots during gas exposure : the role of water and reactive atomic layer deposition precursors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b08259},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2019},
}

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