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A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat

(2019) PLANT CELL. 31(12). p.3092-3112
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Abstract
Xanthophylls are a class of carotenoids that are important micronutrients for humans. They are often found esterified with fatty acids in fruits, vegetables and certain grains, including bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Esterification promotes the sequestration and accumulation of carotenoids, thereby enhancing stability, particularly in tissues such as in harvested wheat grain. Here, we report on a plant xanthophyll acyltransferase (XAT) that is both necessary and sufficient for xanthophyll esterification in bread wheat grain. XAT contains a canonical Gly-Asp-Ser-Leu (GDSL) motif and is encoded by a member of the GDSL esterase/lipase (GELP) gene family. Genetic evidence from allelic variants of wheat and transgenic rice calli demonstrated that XAT catalyzes the formation of xanthophyll esters. XAT has broad substrate specificity and can esterify lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin using multiple acyl-donors, yet it has a preference for triacylglycerides, indicating that the enzyme acts via transesterification. A conserved amino acid, Ser-37, is required for activity. Despite xanthophylls being synthesized in plastids, XAT accumulated in the apoplast. Based on analysis of substrate preferences and xanthophyll ester formation in vitro and in vivo using xanthophyll-accumulating rice callus, we propose that disintegration of the cellular structure during wheat grain desiccation facilitates access to lutein promoting transesterification.
Keywords
Plant Science, Cell Biology

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Citation

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MLA
Watkins, Jacinta L., et al. “A GDSL Esterase/Lipase Catalyzes the Esterification of Lutein in Bread Wheat.” PLANT CELL, vol. 31, no. 12, 2019, pp. 3092–112.
APA
Watkins, J. L., Li, M., McQuinn, R. P., Chan, K. X., McFarlane, H. E., Ermakova, M., … Pogson, B. J. (2019). A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat. PLANT CELL, 31(12), 3092–3112.
Chicago author-date
Watkins, Jacinta L, Ming Li, Ryan Patrick McQuinn, Kai Xun Chan, Heather E. McFarlane, Maria Ermakova, Robert T. Furbank, et al. 2019. “A GDSL Esterase/Lipase Catalyzes the Esterification of Lutein in Bread Wheat.” PLANT CELL 31 (12): 3092–3112.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Watkins, Jacinta L, Ming Li, Ryan Patrick McQuinn, Kai Xun Chan, Heather E. McFarlane, Maria Ermakova, Robert T. Furbank, Daryl J Mares, Chongmei Dong, Kenneth J Chalmers, Peter Sharp, Diane Mather, and Barry J Pogson. 2019. “A GDSL Esterase/Lipase Catalyzes the Esterification of Lutein in Bread Wheat.” PLANT CELL 31 (12): 3092–3112.
Vancouver
1.
Watkins JL, Li M, McQuinn RP, Chan KX, McFarlane HE, Ermakova M, et al. A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat. PLANT CELL. 2019;31(12):3092–112.
IEEE
[1]
J. L. Watkins et al., “A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat,” PLANT CELL, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 3092–3112, 2019.
@article{8637112,
  abstract     = {Xanthophylls are a class of carotenoids that are important micronutrients for humans. They are often found esterified with fatty acids in fruits, vegetables and certain grains, including bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Esterification promotes the sequestration and accumulation of carotenoids, thereby enhancing stability, particularly in tissues such as in harvested wheat grain. Here, we report on a plant xanthophyll acyltransferase (XAT) that is both necessary and sufficient for xanthophyll esterification in bread wheat grain. XAT contains a canonical Gly-Asp-Ser-Leu (GDSL) motif and is encoded by a member of the GDSL esterase/lipase (GELP) gene family. Genetic evidence from allelic variants of wheat and transgenic rice calli demonstrated that XAT catalyzes the formation of xanthophyll esters. XAT has broad substrate specificity and can esterify lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin using multiple acyl-donors, yet it has a preference for triacylglycerides, indicating that the enzyme acts via transesterification. A conserved amino acid, Ser-37, is required for activity. Despite xanthophylls being synthesized in plastids, XAT accumulated in the apoplast. Based on analysis of substrate preferences and xanthophyll ester formation in vitro and in vivo using xanthophyll-accumulating rice callus, we propose that disintegration of the cellular structure during wheat grain desiccation facilitates access to lutein promoting transesterification.},
  author       = {Watkins, Jacinta L and Li, Ming and McQuinn, Ryan Patrick and Chan, Kai Xun and McFarlane, Heather E. and Ermakova, Maria and Furbank, Robert T. and Mares, Daryl J and Dong, Chongmei and Chalmers, Kenneth J and Sharp, Peter and Mather, Diane and Pogson, Barry J},
  issn         = {1040-4651},
  journal      = {PLANT CELL},
  keywords     = {Plant Science,Cell Biology},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {3092--3112},
  title        = {A GDSL esterase/lipase catalyzes the esterification of lutein in bread wheat},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00272},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2019},
}

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