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Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey

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Abstract
In this short note we present comparable loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from 29 countries, obtained with the COLOSS questionnaire. Altogether, we received valid answers from 19,952 beekeepers. These beekeepers collectively wintered 421,238 colonies, and reported 18,587 colonies with unsolvable queen problems and 32,048 dead colonies after winter. This gives an overall loss rate of 12.0% (95% confidence interval 11.8-12.2%) during winter 2015/16, with marked differences among countries. Beekeepers in the present study assessed 7.6% (95% CI 7.4-7.8%) of their colonies as dead or empty, and 4.4% (95% CI 4.3-4.5%) as having unsolvable queen problems after winter. The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones. A table with detailed results and a map showing response and relative risks at regional level are presented.
Keywords
Apis mellifera, apiculture, colony loss, monitoring, winter survival, beekeeping, survey, citizen science, EUROPE

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MLA
Brodschneider, Robert, et al. “Preliminary Analysis of Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 55, no. 5, 2016, pp. 375–78.
APA
Brodschneider, R., Gray, A., van der Zee, R., Adjlane, N., Brusbardis, V., Charriere, J.-D., … Woehl, S. (2016). Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, 55(5), 375–378.
Chicago author-date
Brodschneider, Robert, Alison Gray, Romee van der Zee, Noureddine Adjlane, Valters Brusbardis, Jean-Daniel Charriere, Robert Chlebo, et al. 2016. “Preliminary Analysis of Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH 55 (5): 375–78.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Brodschneider, Robert, Alison Gray, Romee van der Zee, Noureddine Adjlane, Valters Brusbardis, Jean-Daniel Charriere, Robert Chlebo, Mary F Coffey, Karl Crailsheim, Bjorn Dahle, Jiri Danihlik, Ellen Danneels, Dirk de Graaf, Marica Maja Drazic, Mariia Fedoriak, Ivan Forsythe, Miroljub Golubovski, Ales Gregorc, Urszula Grzeda, Ian Hubbuck, Rahsan Ivgin Tunca, Lassi Kauko, Ole Kilpinen, Justinas Kretavicius, Preben Kristiansen, Maritta Martikkala, Raquel Martin-Hernandez, Franco Mutinelli, Magnus Peterson, Christoph Otten, Asli Ozkirim, Aivar Raudmets, Noa Simon-Delso, Victoria Soroker, Grazyna Topolska, Julien Vallon, Flemming Vejsnaes, and Saskia Woehl. 2016. “Preliminary Analysis of Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH 55 (5): 375–378.
Vancouver
1.
Brodschneider R, Gray A, van der Zee R, Adjlane N, Brusbardis V, Charriere J-D, et al. Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH. 2016;55(5):375–8.
IEEE
[1]
R. Brodschneider et al., “Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey,” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 375–378, 2016.
@article{8636910,
  abstract     = {In this short note we present comparable loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from 29 countries, obtained with the COLOSS questionnaire. Altogether, we received valid answers from 19,952 beekeepers. These beekeepers collectively wintered 421,238 colonies, and reported 18,587 colonies with unsolvable queen problems and 32,048 dead colonies after winter. This gives an overall loss rate of 12.0% (95% confidence interval 11.8-12.2%) during winter 2015/16, with marked differences among countries. Beekeepers in the present study assessed 7.6% (95% CI 7.4-7.8%) of their colonies as dead or empty, and 4.4% (95% CI 4.3-4.5%) as having unsolvable queen problems after winter. The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones. A table with detailed results and a map showing response and relative risks at regional level are presented.},
  author       = {Brodschneider, Robert and Gray, Alison and van der Zee, Romee and Adjlane, Noureddine and Brusbardis, Valters and Charriere, Jean-Daniel and Chlebo, Robert and Coffey, Mary F and Crailsheim, Karl and Dahle, Bjorn and Danihlik, Jiri and Danneels, Ellen and de Graaf, Dirk and Drazic, Marica Maja and Fedoriak, Mariia and Forsythe, Ivan and Golubovski, Miroljub and Gregorc, Ales and Grzeda, Urszula and Hubbuck, Ian and Tunca, Rahsan Ivgin and Kauko, Lassi and Kilpinen, Ole and Kretavicius, Justinas and Kristiansen, Preben and Martikkala, Maritta and Martin-Hernandez, Raquel and Mutinelli, Franco and Peterson, Magnus and Otten, Christoph and Ozkirim, Asli and Raudmets, Aivar and Simon-Delso, Noa and Soroker, Victoria and Topolska, Grazyna and Vallon, Julien and Vejsnaes, Flemming and Woehl, Saskia},
  issn         = {0021-8839},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Apis mellifera,apiculture,colony loss,monitoring,winter survival,beekeeping,survey,citizen science,EUROPE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {375--378},
  title        = {Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2016.1260240},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2016},
}

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