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Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey

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Abstract
In this short note we present comparable loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from 27 European countries plus Algeria, Israel and Mexico, obtained with the COLOSS questionnaire. The 14,813 beekeepers providing valid loss data collectively wintered 425,762 colonies, and reported 21,887 (5.1%, 95% confidence interval 5.0-5.3%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems and 60,227 (14.1%, 95% CI 13.8-14.4%) dead colonies after winter. Additionally we asked for colonies lost due to natural disaster, which made up another 6,903 colonies (1.6%, 95% CI 1.5-1.7%). This results in an overall loss rate of 20.9% (95% CI 20.6-21.3%) of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017, with marked differences among countries. The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones (p < 0.001). Overall migratory beekeeping had no significant effect on the risk of winter loss, though there was an effect in several countries. A table is presented giving detailed results from 30 countries. A map is also included, showing relative risk of colony winter loss at regional level.
Keywords
Apis mellifera, overwinter, mortality, colony losses, monitoring, beekeeping, survey, citizen science

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MLA
Brodschneider, Robert, et al. “Multi-Country Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 57, no. 3, 2018, pp. 452–57.
APA
Brodschneider, R., Gray, A., Adjlane, N., Ballis, A., Brusbardis, V., Charriere, J.-D., … Danihlik, J. (2018). Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, 57(3), 452–457.
Chicago author-date
Brodschneider, Robert, Alison Gray, Noureddine Adjlane, Alexis Ballis, Valters Brusbardis, Jean-Daniel Charriere, Robert Chlebo, et al. 2018. “Multi-Country Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH 57 (3): 452–57.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Brodschneider, Robert, Alison Gray, Noureddine Adjlane, Alexis Ballis, Valters Brusbardis, Jean-Daniel Charriere, Robert Chlebo, Mary F Coffey, Bjorn Dahle, Dirk de Graaf, Marica Maja Drazic, Garth Evans, Mariia Fedoriak, Ivan Forsythe, Ales Gregorc, Urszula Grzeda, Amots Hetzroni, Lassi Kauko, Preben Kristiansen, Maritta Martikkala, Raquel Martin-Hernandez, Carlos Aurelio Medina-Flores, Franco Mutinelli, Aivar Raudmets, Vladimir A Ryzhikov, Noa Simon-Delso, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Aleksandar Uzunov, Flemming Vejsnaes, Saskia Woehl, Marion Zammit-Mangion, and Jiri Danihlik. 2018. “Multi-Country Loss Rates of Honey Bee Colonies during Winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS Survey.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH 57 (3): 452–457.
Vancouver
1.
Brodschneider R, Gray A, Adjlane N, Ballis A, Brusbardis V, Charriere J-D, et al. Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH. 2018;57(3):452–7.
IEEE
[1]
R. Brodschneider et al., “Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey,” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 452–457, 2018.
@article{8636902,
  abstract     = {In this short note we present comparable loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from 27 European countries plus Algeria, Israel and Mexico, obtained with the COLOSS questionnaire. The 14,813 beekeepers providing valid loss data collectively wintered 425,762 colonies, and reported 21,887 (5.1%, 95% confidence interval 5.0-5.3%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems and 60,227 (14.1%, 95% CI 13.8-14.4%) dead colonies after winter. Additionally we asked for colonies lost due to natural disaster, which made up another 6,903 colonies (1.6%, 95% CI 1.5-1.7%). This results in an overall loss rate of 20.9% (95% CI 20.6-21.3%) of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017, with marked differences among countries. The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones (p < 0.001). Overall migratory beekeeping had no significant effect on the risk of winter loss, though there was an effect in several countries. A table is presented giving detailed results from 30 countries. A map is also included, showing relative risk of colony winter loss at regional level.},
  author       = {Brodschneider, Robert and Gray, Alison and Adjlane, Noureddine and Ballis, Alexis and Brusbardis, Valters and Charriere, Jean-Daniel and Chlebo, Robert and Coffey, Mary F and Dahle, Bjorn and de Graaf, Dirk and Drazic, Marica Maja and Evans, Garth and Fedoriak, Mariia and Forsythe, Ivan and Gregorc, Ales and Grzeda, Urszula and Hetzroni, Amots and Kauko, Lassi and Kristiansen, Preben and Martikkala, Maritta and Martin-Hernandez, Raquel and Aurelio Medina-Flores, Carlos and Mutinelli, Franco and Raudmets, Aivar and Ryzhikov, Vladimir A and Simon-Delso, Noa and Stevanovic, Jevrosima and Uzunov, Aleksandar and Vejsnaes, Flemming and Woehl, Saskia and Zammit-Mangion, Marion and Danihlik, Jiri},
  issn         = {0021-8839},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Apis mellifera,overwinter,mortality,colony losses,monitoring,beekeeping,survey,citizen science},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {452--457},
  title        = {Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2018.1460911},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2018},
}

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