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Attentional disengagement from emotional information predicts future depression via changes in ruminative brooding : a five-month longitudinal eye-tracking study

Alvaro Sanchez Lopez (UGent) , Ernst Koster (UGent) , Jill van Put (UGent) and Rudi De Raedt (UGent)
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Abstract
Brooding is considered a maladaptive form of emotion regulation linking adverse events to increases in depressive symptoms. The "Impaired Disengagement Hypothesis" (Koster, De Lissnyder, Derakshan & De Raedt, 2011) proposes that attentional disengagement processes are a main mechanism involved in the emergence and maintenance of brooding responses. In this study we tested prospective predictions derived from this framework, relying on eye-tracking to assess direct processes of attentional disengagement from emotional faces (i.e., time to move gaze away from either positive or negative faces when prompted to fixate a different face). A sample of undergraduates (n = 89) completed measures of depression, brooding, and the attentional disengagement task at baseline (beginning of the semester) and five months later (immediately after a stressful period: examination). The results supported a moderated mediation model where slower disengagement from positive faces at baseline (predictor) predicted decreases in brooding during the follow-up period (mediator), indirectly predicting decreased depressive symptoms at follow-up (outcome) in individuals encountering more adverse events during the follow-up period (moderator). Furthermore, analyses also supported a moderation model where more habitual brooding at baseline (predictor) predicted slower disengagement from negative faces at follow-up (outcome) in individuals encountering more adverse events (moderator). Our findings support bidirectional influences between attentional disengagement and brooding and highlight protective attention patterns with implications for the development of efficient strategies for the prevention of depression.
Keywords
COGNITIVE CONTROL, GAZE-FIXATION, SYMPTOMS, STRESS, FACES, INDIVIDUALS, ASSOCIATION, DISPOSITION, COMPONENTS, DISORDERS, Emotion processing, Attentional disengagement, Rumination, Depression, Longitudinal research, Eye-tracking

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Sanchez Lopez, Alvaro, et al. “Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Information Predicts Future Depression via Changes in Ruminative Brooding : A Five-Month Longitudinal Eye-Tracking Study.” BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, vol. 118, 2019, pp. 30–42.
APA
Sanchez Lopez, A., Koster, E., van Put, J., & De Raedt, R. (2019). Attentional disengagement from emotional information predicts future depression via changes in ruminative brooding : a five-month longitudinal eye-tracking study. BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, 118, 30–42.
Chicago author-date
Sanchez Lopez, Alvaro, Ernst Koster, Jill van Put, and Rudi De Raedt. 2019. “Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Information Predicts Future Depression via Changes in Ruminative Brooding : A Five-Month Longitudinal Eye-Tracking Study.” BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY 118: 30–42.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sanchez Lopez, Alvaro, Ernst Koster, Jill van Put, and Rudi De Raedt. 2019. “Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Information Predicts Future Depression via Changes in Ruminative Brooding : A Five-Month Longitudinal Eye-Tracking Study.” BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY 118: 30–42.
Vancouver
1.
Sanchez Lopez A, Koster E, van Put J, De Raedt R. Attentional disengagement from emotional information predicts future depression via changes in ruminative brooding : a five-month longitudinal eye-tracking study. BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY. 2019;118:30–42.
IEEE
[1]
A. Sanchez Lopez, E. Koster, J. van Put, and R. De Raedt, “Attentional disengagement from emotional information predicts future depression via changes in ruminative brooding : a five-month longitudinal eye-tracking study,” BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, vol. 118, pp. 30–42, 2019.
@article{8634706,
  abstract     = {Brooding is considered a maladaptive form of emotion regulation linking adverse events to increases in depressive symptoms. The "Impaired Disengagement Hypothesis" (Koster, De Lissnyder, Derakshan & De Raedt, 2011) proposes that attentional disengagement processes are a main mechanism involved in the emergence and maintenance of brooding responses. In this study we tested prospective predictions derived from this framework, relying on eye-tracking to assess direct processes of attentional disengagement from emotional faces (i.e., time to move gaze away from either positive or negative faces when prompted to fixate a different face). A sample of undergraduates (n = 89) completed measures of depression, brooding, and the attentional disengagement task at baseline (beginning of the semester) and five months later (immediately after a stressful period: examination). The results supported a moderated mediation model where slower disengagement from positive faces at baseline (predictor) predicted decreases in brooding during the follow-up period (mediator), indirectly predicting decreased depressive symptoms at follow-up (outcome) in individuals encountering more adverse events during the follow-up period (moderator). Furthermore, analyses also supported a moderation model where more habitual brooding at baseline (predictor) predicted slower disengagement from negative faces at follow-up (outcome) in individuals encountering more adverse events (moderator). Our findings support bidirectional influences between attentional disengagement and brooding and highlight protective attention patterns with implications for the development of efficient strategies for the prevention of depression.},
  author       = {Sanchez Lopez, Alvaro and Koster, Ernst and van Put, Jill and De Raedt, Rudi},
  issn         = {0005-7967},
  journal      = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
  keywords     = {COGNITIVE CONTROL,GAZE-FIXATION,SYMPTOMS,STRESS,FACES,INDIVIDUALS,ASSOCIATION,DISPOSITION,COMPONENTS,DISORDERS,Emotion processing,Attentional disengagement,Rumination,Depression,Longitudinal research,Eye-tracking},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {30--42},
  title        = {Attentional disengagement from emotional information predicts future depression via changes in ruminative brooding : a five-month longitudinal eye-tracking study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.013},
  volume       = {118},
  year         = {2019},
}

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