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Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching

(2019) MOTIVATION AND EMOTION. 43(1). p.12-34
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Abstract
Uncontrollability has been often associated with impaired or rigid cognitive processing. However, perceived stability of uncontrollable events modulated some of these detrimental effects on cognition. We investigated whether the experience of sequential control loss and restoration can enhance cognitive flexibility. We manipulated uncontrollability using a concept formation procedure that entailed either only unsolvable tasks (control deprivation condition), unsolvable tasks followed by solvable ones (control restoration condition) or only solvable tasks (control condition). To assess cognitive flexibility, we used a task-switching procedure that incorporated social categories. In Experiment 1 participants categorized people based on gender or age, and in Experiment 2 and 3 based on gender or social roles. Participants showed more flexibility in control restoration than in control deprivation condition. Additionally, in Experiments 2 and 3 this effect was mainly pronounced in the condition where the task evoked more cognitive conflict. We discuss the motivational underpinnings of unstable experiences of control loss and restoration.
Keywords
Control deprivation, Cognitive flexibility, Task switching, Social categories, positive affect, learned helplessness, cognitive control, negative affect, uncontrollability, motivation, attention, mind, information

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MLA
Bukowski, Marcin, et al. “Different Faces of (Un)Controllability: Control Restoration Modulates the Efficiency of Task Switching.” MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, vol. 43, no. 1, 2019, pp. 12–34.
APA
Bukowski, M., de Lemus, S., Marzecova, A., Lupiáñez, J., & Gocłowska, M. A. (2019). Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, 43(1), 12–34.
Chicago author-date
Bukowski, Marcin, Soledad de Lemus, Anna Marzecova, Juan Lupiáñez, and Małgorzata A. Gocłowska. 2019. “Different Faces of (Un)Controllability: Control Restoration Modulates the Efficiency of Task Switching.” MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 43 (1): 12–34.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bukowski, Marcin, Soledad de Lemus, Anna Marzecova, Juan Lupiáñez, and Małgorzata A. Gocłowska. 2019. “Different Faces of (Un)Controllability: Control Restoration Modulates the Efficiency of Task Switching.” MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 43 (1): 12–34.
Vancouver
1.
Bukowski M, de Lemus S, Marzecova A, Lupiáñez J, Gocłowska MA. Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION. 2019;43(1):12–34.
IEEE
[1]
M. Bukowski, S. de Lemus, A. Marzecova, J. Lupiáñez, and M. A. Gocłowska, “Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching,” MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 12–34, 2019.
@article{8634373,
  abstract     = {Uncontrollability has been often associated with impaired or rigid cognitive processing. However, perceived stability of uncontrollable events modulated some of these detrimental effects on cognition. We investigated whether the experience of sequential control loss and restoration can enhance cognitive flexibility. We manipulated uncontrollability using a concept formation procedure that entailed either only unsolvable tasks (control deprivation condition), unsolvable tasks followed by solvable ones (control restoration condition) or only solvable tasks (control condition). To assess cognitive flexibility, we used a task-switching procedure that incorporated social categories. In Experiment 1 participants categorized people based on gender or age, and in Experiment 2 and 3 based on gender or social roles. Participants showed more flexibility in control restoration than in control deprivation condition. Additionally, in Experiments 2 and 3 this effect was mainly pronounced in the condition where the task evoked more cognitive conflict. We discuss the motivational underpinnings of unstable experiences of control loss and restoration.},
  author       = {Bukowski, Marcin and de Lemus, Soledad and Marzecova, Anna and Lupiáñez, Juan and Gocłowska, Małgorzata A.},
  issn         = {0146-7239},
  journal      = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
  keywords     = {Control deprivation,Cognitive flexibility,Task switching,Social categories,positive affect,learned helplessness,cognitive control,negative affect,uncontrollability,motivation,attention,mind,information},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {12--34},
  title        = {Different faces of (un)controllability: Control restoration modulates the efficiency of task switching},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11031-018-9745-8},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2019},
}

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