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Multi-analytical approach to the study of the European glass beads found in the tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola)

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Abstract
The glass bead assemblages recovered during the 2014 excavations of the ruins of Kulumbimbi located in Mbanza Kongo (Angola) were analyzed by means of a multi-analytical minimally invasive methodology, which includes handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF), variable pressure scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Chemical data indicate that cobalt, copper, iron and manganese ions were used to produce the blue, green, reddish-brown and black hues, respectively. Lead arsenates, calcium phosphate, calcium antimonate, lead stannate, cassiterite and Pb-Sb-Sn oxide were used as opacifying agents. Chondrite-normalized trace element distribution and chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns were used to determine the sand source used in the production of the different glass bead types. These distributions were also used to identify the manufacture location of the glass beads with previously unknown origin and production date. Based on the data collected, the glass beads from types 16, 20, 22, 24, 25, 46 and 47 have been assigned as Venetian.
Keywords
Analytical Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Archaeology, Angola, Kongo kingdom, ROMAN GLASS, RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE, CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS, TRADE BEADS, LATE-ANTIQUE, INORGANIC PIGMENTS, GENUINE ARTIFACTS, BRONZE-AGE, IDENTIFICATION, Mbanza Kongo, Kongo kingdom, glass beads, Provenance, Colorants and opacifiers, LA-ICP-MS

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MLA
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, et al. “Multi-Analytical Approach to the Study of the European Glass Beads Found in the Tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 149, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.microc.2019.103990.
APA
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, M., Barrulas, P., Dias, L., da Conceição Lopes, M., Barreira, J., Clist, B.-O., … Mirão, J. (2019). Multi-analytical approach to the study of the European glass beads found in the tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola). MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.103990
Chicago author-date
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, Pedro Barrulas, Luís Dias, Maria da Conceição Lopes, João Barreira, Bernard-Olivier Clist, Karlis Karklins, et al. 2019. “Multi-Analytical Approach to the Study of the European Glass Beads Found in the Tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.103990.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda, Pedro Barrulas, Luís Dias, Maria da Conceição Lopes, João Barreira, Bernard-Olivier Clist, Karlis Karklins, Maria da Piedade de Jesus, Sónia da Silva Domingos, Peter Vandenabeele, and José Mirão. 2019. “Multi-Analytical Approach to the Study of the European Glass Beads Found in the Tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola).” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 149. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2019.103990.
Vancouver
1.
Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa M, Barrulas P, Dias L, da Conceição Lopes M, Barreira J, Clist B-O, et al. Multi-analytical approach to the study of the European glass beads found in the tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola). MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL. 2019;149.
IEEE
[1]
M. Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa et al., “Multi-analytical approach to the study of the European glass beads found in the tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola),” MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 149, 2019.
@article{8633675,
  abstract     = {{The glass bead assemblages recovered during the 2014 excavations of the ruins of Kulumbimbi located in
Mbanza Kongo (Angola) were analyzed by means of a multi-analytical minimally invasive methodology, which
includes handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF), variable pressure scanning electron microscope coupled with
energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively
coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Chemical data indicate that cobalt, copper, iron and manganese
ions were used to produce the blue, green, reddish-brown and black hues, respectively. Lead arsenates, calcium
phosphate, calcium antimonate, lead stannate, cassiterite and Pb-Sb-Sn oxide were used as opacifying agents.
Chondrite-normalized trace element distribution and chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns were
used to determine the sand source used in the production of the different glass bead types. These distributions
were also used to identify the manufacture location of the glass beads with previously unknown origin and
production date. Based on the data collected, the glass beads from types 16, 20, 22, 24, 25, 46 and 47 have been
assigned as Venetian.}},
  articleno    = {{103990}},
  author       = {{Barrocas Dias Teixeira da Costa, Mafalda and Barrulas, Pedro and Dias, Luís and da Conceição Lopes, Maria and Barreira, João and Clist, Bernard-Olivier and Karklins, Karlis and da Piedade de Jesus, Maria and da Silva Domingos, Sónia and Vandenabeele, Peter and Mirão, José}},
  issn         = {{0026-265X}},
  journal      = {{MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Analytical Chemistry,Spectroscopy,Archaeology,Angola,Kongo kingdom,ROMAN GLASS,RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY,ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE,CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS,TRADE BEADS,LATE-ANTIQUE,INORGANIC PIGMENTS,GENUINE ARTIFACTS,BRONZE-AGE,IDENTIFICATION,Mbanza Kongo,Kongo kingdom,glass beads,Provenance,Colorants and opacifiers,LA-ICP-MS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  title        = {{Multi-analytical approach to the study of the European glass beads found in the tombs of Kulumbimbi (Mbanza Kongo, Angola)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.103990}},
  volume       = {{149}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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