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Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nanostructured gold near room temperature

(2019) ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 11(40). p.37229-37238
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Abstract
A plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process to deposit metallic gold is reported, using the previously reported Me3Au(PMe3) precursor with H-2 plasma as the reactant. The process has a deposition window from 50 to 120 degrees C with a growth rate of 0.030 +/- 0.002 nm per cycle on gold seed layers, and it shows saturating behavior for both the precursor and reactant exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the gold films deposited at 120 degrees C are of higher purity than the previously reported ones (<1 at. % carbon and oxygen impurities and <0.1 at. % phosphorous). A low resistivity value was obtained (5.9 +/- 0.3 mu Omega/cm), and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that films deposited at 50 and 120 degrees C are polycrystalline. The process forms gold nanoparticles on oxide surfaces, which coalesce into wormlike nanostructures during deposition. Nanostructures grown at 120 degrees C are evaluated as substrates for free-space surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and exhibit an excellent enhancement factor that is without optimization, only one order of magnitude weaker than state-of-the-art gold nanodome substrates. The reported gold PE-ALD process therefore offers a deposition method to create SERS substrates that are template-free and does not require lithography. Using this process, it is possible to deposit nanostructured gold layers at low temperatures on complex three-dimensional (3D) substrates, opening up opportunities for the application of gold ALD in flexible electronics, heterogeneous catalysis, or the preparation of 3D SERS substrates.
Keywords
atomic layer deposition, nanoparticles, plasmonics, SERS, gold metal, CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION, SURFACE, NANOPARTICLES, CONFORMALITY, SPECTROSCOPY, REFLECTION, ALD

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Citation

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MLA
Van Daele, Michiel, et al. “Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Gold near Room Temperature.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 11, no. 40, 2019, pp. 37229–38.
APA
Van Daele, M., Griffiths, M. B., Raza, A., Minjauw, M., Solano, E., Feng, J.-Y., … Dendooven, J. (2019). Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nanostructured gold near room temperature. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 11(40), 37229–37238.
Chicago author-date
Van Daele, Michiel, Matthew BE Griffiths, Ali Raza, Matthias Minjauw, Eduardo Solano, Ji-Yu Feng, Ranjith Karuparambil Ramachandran, et al. 2019. “Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Gold near Room Temperature.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES 11 (40): 37229–38.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Daele, Michiel, Matthew BE Griffiths, Ali Raza, Matthias Minjauw, Eduardo Solano, Ji-Yu Feng, Ranjith Karuparambil Ramachandran, Stéphane Clemmen, Roel Baets, Seán T Barry, Christophe Detavernier, and Jolien Dendooven. 2019. “Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Gold near Room Temperature.” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES 11 (40): 37229–37238.
Vancouver
1.
Van Daele M, Griffiths MB, Raza A, Minjauw M, Solano E, Feng J-Y, et al. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nanostructured gold near room temperature. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES. 2019;11(40):37229–38.
IEEE
[1]
M. Van Daele et al., “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nanostructured gold near room temperature,” ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 11, no. 40, pp. 37229–37238, 2019.
@article{8633013,
  abstract     = {A plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process to deposit metallic gold is reported, using the previously reported Me3Au(PMe3) precursor with H-2 plasma as the reactant. The process has a deposition window from 50 to 120 degrees C with a growth rate of 0.030 +/- 0.002 nm per cycle on gold seed layers, and it shows saturating behavior for both the precursor and reactant exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the gold films deposited at 120 degrees C are of higher purity than the previously reported ones (<1 at. % carbon and oxygen impurities and <0.1 at. % phosphorous). A low resistivity value was obtained (5.9 +/- 0.3 mu Omega/cm), and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that films deposited at 50 and 120 degrees C are polycrystalline. The process forms gold nanoparticles on oxide surfaces, which coalesce into wormlike nanostructures during deposition. Nanostructures grown at 120 degrees C are evaluated as substrates for free-space surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and exhibit an excellent enhancement factor that is without optimization, only one order of magnitude weaker than state-of-the-art gold nanodome substrates. The reported gold PE-ALD process therefore offers a deposition method to create SERS substrates that are template-free and does not require lithography. Using this process, it is possible to deposit nanostructured gold layers at low temperatures on complex three-dimensional (3D) substrates, opening up opportunities for the application of gold ALD in flexible electronics, heterogeneous catalysis, or the preparation of 3D SERS substrates.},
  author       = {Van Daele, Michiel and Griffiths, Matthew BE and Raza, Ali and Minjauw, Matthias and Solano, Eduardo and Feng, Ji-Yu and Karuparambil Ramachandran, Ranjith and Clemmen, Stéphane and Baets, Roel and Barry, Seán T and Detavernier, Christophe and Dendooven, Jolien},
  issn         = {1944-8244},
  journal      = {ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES},
  keywords     = {atomic layer deposition,nanoparticles,plasmonics,SERS,gold metal,CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION,SURFACE,NANOPARTICLES,CONFORMALITY,SPECTROSCOPY,REFLECTION,ALD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {40},
  pages        = {37229--37238},
  title        = {Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of nanostructured gold near room temperature},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b10848},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2019},
}

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