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Abstract
Metals, which are natural compounds in the environment, have important uses in human society. After mining and use, they are to a large extent released and dispersed in the environment. This has for several elements greatly influenced their biogeochemical cycling rates. Metals cannot be broken down and thus are destined to remain in the environment, subject to biogeochemical processes of (bio)accumulation and transport. Industrial activities, and in particular metal smelter activities, have been causes of significant contamination with metals over extended areas. In agriculture, excess metals may have be introduced through metal based agrochemicals, or contaminated soil amendments, fertilizers and animal manure. As awareness on the hazards of metals has increased, many uses of metals have been more strictly controlled. Nevertheless, ongoing contamination as a result of inadequate artisanal manufacturing including e.g. tannery or e-waste processing remains a mayor ongoing concern worldwide. It is a major challenge to the modern society to manage metals in such a way that uncontrolled release back into the environment is effectively stopped. Still, soils with legacy contamination have to be dealt with. Effective removal of metals from such areas using conventional soil remediation techniques is financially prohibitive in a majority of cases where the contamination is relatively moderate and affecting large areas. Such areas requires the adoption of specific management strategies that fit within an overall strategy for sustainable management of land and which are aimed at maintaining the soils under beneficial use, however in a way where risks related to the presence of the metals are fully under control.
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labo, type=c2

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MLA
Yang, Xiao, et al. “Investigating Heavy Metal Behavior and Microbe Response to Different Types of Gasified Biochars in Historically Contaminated Soil.” 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017, 2017, p. 45.
APA
Yang, X., Tsibart, A., Tack, F. M. G., Lee, Y. H., Hur, J., Wang, C.-H., … OK, Y. S. (2017). Investigating heavy metal behavior and microbe response to different types of gasified biochars in historically contaminated soil. In 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017 (p. 45). Shenshen, China.
Chicago author-date
Yang, Xiao, Ana Tsibart, Filip M G Tack, Young Han Lee, Jin Hur, Chi-Hwa Wang, Daniel C W Tsang, and Yong Sik OK. 2017. “Investigating Heavy Metal Behavior and Microbe Response to Different Types of Gasified Biochars in Historically Contaminated Soil.” In 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017, 45. Shenshen, China.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yang, Xiao, Ana Tsibart, Filip M G Tack, Young Han Lee, Jin Hur, Chi-Hwa Wang, Daniel C W Tsang, and Yong Sik OK. 2017. “Investigating Heavy Metal Behavior and Microbe Response to Different Types of Gasified Biochars in Historically Contaminated Soil.” In 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017, 45. Shenshen, China.
Vancouver
1.
Yang X, Tsibart A, Tack FMG, Lee YH, Hur J, Wang C-H, et al. Investigating heavy metal behavior and microbe response to different types of gasified biochars in historically contaminated soil. In: 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017. Shenshen, China; 2017. p. 45.
IEEE
[1]
X. Yang et al., “Investigating heavy metal behavior and microbe response to different types of gasified biochars in historically contaminated soil,” in 8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017, 2017, p. 45.
@inproceedings{8632524,
  abstract     = {Metals, which are natural compounds in the environment, have important uses in human society. After mining and use, they are to a large extent released and dispersed in the environment. This has for several elements greatly influenced their biogeochemical cycling rates. Metals cannot be broken down and thus are destined to remain in the environment, subject to biogeochemical processes of (bio)accumulation and transport. Industrial activities, and in particular metal smelter activities, have been causes of significant contamination with metals over extended areas. In agriculture, excess metals may have be introduced through metal based agrochemicals, or contaminated soil amendments, fertilizers and animal manure. As awareness on the hazards of metals has increased, many uses of metals have been more strictly controlled. Nevertheless, ongoing contamination as a result of inadequate artisanal manufacturing including e.g. tannery or e-waste processing remains a mayor ongoing concern worldwide. It is a major challenge to the modern society to manage metals in such a way that uncontrolled release back into the environment is effectively stopped. Still, soils with legacy contamination have to be dealt with. Effective removal of metals from such areas using conventional soil remediation techniques is financially prohibitive in a majority of cases where the contamination is relatively moderate and affecting large areas. Such areas requires the adoption of specific management strategies that fit within an overall strategy for sustainable management of land and which are aimed at maintaining the soils under beneficial use, however in a way where risks related to the presence of the metals are fully under control.},
  author       = {Yang, Xiao and Tsibart, Ana and Tack, Filip M G and Lee, Young Han and Hur, Jin and Wang, Chi-Hwa and Tsang, Daniel C W and OK, Yong Sik},
  booktitle    = {8th International Conference on Geochemistry in the Tropics \& Subtropics (GeoTrop 2017): Ecotoxicology of Persistent Toxic Substances in Food Production, Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, 9 – 12 December 2017},
  keywords     = {labo,type=c2},
  title        = {Investigating heavy metal behavior and microbe response to different types of gasified biochars in historically contaminated soil},
  year         = {2017},
}