Advanced search
2 files | 3.14 MB Add to list

On the assimilation of instructions : stimulus-response associations are implemented but not stimulus-task associations

(2019) JOURNAL OF COGNITION. 2(1). p.1-16
Author
Organization
Abstract
The assimilation of instructions consists of two stages. First, a task model is formed on the basis of instructions. Second, this model is implemented, resulting in highly accessible representations, which enable reflexive behavior that guides the application of instructions. Research frequently demonstrated that instructions can lead to automatic response activation, which indicates that stimulus-response associations can be implemented on the basis of a task model. However, instructions not only indicate how to respond (stimulus-response mappings) but also when (i.e., the conditions under which mappings apply). Accordingly, we tested whether instruction implementation leads both to the activation of stimulus-response associations and of associations between stimuli and the context or task in which the instructed stimulus-response mappings are relevant (i.e., stimulus-task associations). In four experiments, we measured if implementing newly instructed stimulus-response mappings also leads to bivalence costs (i.e., shorter latencies when a stimulus can only occur in one task compared to when it can occur in two tasks), which indicate the presence of stimulus-task associations. We consistently observed automatic response activation on the basis of instructions, but no bivalence costs. A discrepancy thus exists between information conveyed in an instructed task model and the elements of that task model that are implemented. We propose that future research on automatic effects of instructions should broaden its scope and focus both on the formation of an instructed task model and its subsequent implementation.
Keywords
Cognitive Control, Action, Attention

Downloads

  • dsfs LV.pdf
    • data factsheet
    • |
    • open access
    • |
    • PDF
    • |
    • 89.00 KB
  • Liefooghe Vebruggen JoC 2019.pdf
    • full text (Published version)
    • |
    • open access
    • |
    • PDF
    • |
    • 3.05 MB

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Liefooghe, Baptist, and Frederick Verbruggen. “On the Assimilation of Instructions : Stimulus-Response Associations Are Implemented but Not Stimulus-Task Associations.” JOURNAL OF COGNITION, vol. 2, no. 1, 2019, pp. 1–16.
APA
Liefooghe, B., & Verbruggen, F. (2019). On the assimilation of instructions : stimulus-response associations are implemented but not stimulus-task associations. JOURNAL OF COGNITION, 2(1), 1–16.
Chicago author-date
Liefooghe, Baptist, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2019. “On the Assimilation of Instructions : Stimulus-Response Associations Are Implemented but Not Stimulus-Task Associations.” JOURNAL OF COGNITION 2 (1): 1–16.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liefooghe, Baptist, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2019. “On the Assimilation of Instructions : Stimulus-Response Associations Are Implemented but Not Stimulus-Task Associations.” JOURNAL OF COGNITION 2 (1): 1–16.
Vancouver
1.
Liefooghe B, Verbruggen F. On the assimilation of instructions : stimulus-response associations are implemented but not stimulus-task associations. JOURNAL OF COGNITION. 2019;2(1):1–16.
IEEE
[1]
B. Liefooghe and F. Verbruggen, “On the assimilation of instructions : stimulus-response associations are implemented but not stimulus-task associations,” JOURNAL OF COGNITION, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2019.
@article{8631199,
  abstract     = {The assimilation of instructions consists of two stages. First, a task model is formed on the basis of instructions. Second, this model is implemented, resulting in highly accessible representations, which enable reflexive behavior that guides the application of instructions. Research frequently demonstrated that instructions can lead to automatic response activation, which indicates that stimulus-response associations can be implemented on the basis of a task model. However, instructions not only indicate how to respond (stimulus-response mappings) but also when (i.e., the conditions under which mappings apply). Accordingly, we tested whether instruction implementation leads both to the activation of stimulus-response associations and of associations between stimuli and the context or task in which the instructed stimulus-response mappings are relevant (i.e., stimulus-task associations). In four experiments, we measured if implementing newly instructed stimulus-response mappings also leads to bivalence costs (i.e., shorter latencies when a stimulus can only occur in one task compared to when it can occur in two tasks), which indicate the presence of stimulus-task associations. We consistently observed automatic response activation on the basis of instructions, but no bivalence costs. A discrepancy thus exists between information conveyed in an instructed task model and the elements of that task model that are implemented. We propose that future research on automatic effects of instructions should broaden its scope and focus both on the formation of an instructed task model and its subsequent implementation.},
  author       = {Liefooghe, Baptist and Verbruggen, Frederick},
  issn         = {2514-4820},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF COGNITION},
  keywords     = {Cognitive Control,Action,Attention},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {1--16},
  title        = {On the assimilation of instructions : stimulus-response associations are implemented but not stimulus-task associations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/joc.78},
  volume       = {2},
  year         = {2019},
}

Altmetric
View in Altmetric