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Spatial and temporal patterns of water salinity in the marginal grabens of Ethiopia's Danakil Depression

(2019) LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT. 30(12). p.1407-1422
Author
Organization
Abstract
Rising salinity is a severe problem associated with land degradation in arid and semiarid regions. This study seeks to understand the spatiotemporal patterns of water salinity and their implication on the downstream water availability in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia. We measured the electrical conductivity (EC) of flash floods, baseflows, springs, wells, and lakes. A total of 1,168 samples was collected from 177 spatially distributed water sources (2016-2017). This study shows that there was a significant difference in the EC values of the water points between rainy (1,403 +/- 425 mu S cm(-1)) and dry seasons (2,261 +/- 258 mu S cm(-1)). Besides, there is an inverse relationship between the river discharges and the runoff EC in the study area. The average value of the water EC was also higher in the limestone area than in the basalt sites. In addition, the water EC increased from the escarpments (396 +/- 176 mu S cm(-1)) towards the outlets of the graben basins (1,670 +/- 942 mu S cm(-1)). These water EC hotspots in the dry season imply that the river basins are in a closing status due to the erratic rainfall and water extraction by humans. However, the rising water EC and moisture stress endanger the existing agricultural development. Because of the extent and seriousness of salinity, integrated catchment management strategies are needed to tackle the degrading water quality and quantity in the marginal grabens along the northern Ethiopia Rift Valley.
Keywords
LAND-COVER CHANGES, IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE, SOIL SALINIZATION, SOUTH-WESTERN, RIVER, GROUNDWATER, VALLEY, VARIABILITY, BASIN, MANAGEMENT, basin closure, electrical conductivity, flash floods, Rift Valley, thresholds

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MLA
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza et al. “Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Water Salinity in the Marginal Grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression.” LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT 30.12 (2019): 1407–1422. Print.
APA
Gebregergs, H. M., Hermans, L., Nyssen, J., Frankl, A., Zenebe, A., Demissie, B., Asfaha, T. G., et al. (2019). Spatial and temporal patterns of water salinity in the marginal grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression. LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT, 30(12), 1407–1422.
Chicago author-date
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza, Laurens Hermans, Jan Nyssen, Amaury Frankl, Amanuel Zenebe, Biadgilgn Demissie, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes Asfaha, Veerle Van Eetvelde, Jozef Deckers, and Jean Poesen. 2019. “Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Water Salinity in the Marginal Grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression.” Land Degradation & Development 30 (12): 1407–1422.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza, Laurens Hermans, Jan Nyssen, Amaury Frankl, Amanuel Zenebe, Biadgilgn Demissie, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes Asfaha, Veerle Van Eetvelde, Jozef Deckers, and Jean Poesen. 2019. “Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Water Salinity in the Marginal Grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression.” Land Degradation & Development 30 (12): 1407–1422.
Vancouver
1.
Gebregergs HM, Hermans L, Nyssen J, Frankl A, Zenebe A, Demissie B, et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of water salinity in the marginal grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression. LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT. 2019;30(12):1407–22.
IEEE
[1]
H. M. Gebregergs et al., “Spatial and temporal patterns of water salinity in the marginal grabens of Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression,” LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1407–1422, 2019.
@article{8629328,
  abstract     = {{Rising salinity is a severe problem associated with land degradation in arid and semiarid regions. This study seeks to understand the spatiotemporal patterns of water salinity and their implication on the downstream water availability in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia. We measured the electrical conductivity (EC) of flash floods, baseflows, springs, wells, and lakes. A total of 1,168 samples was collected from 177 spatially distributed water sources (2016-2017). This study shows that there was a significant difference in the EC values of the water points between rainy (1,403 +/- 425 mu S cm(-1)) and dry seasons (2,261 +/- 258 mu S cm(-1)). Besides, there is an inverse relationship between the river discharges and the runoff EC in the study area. The average value of the water EC was also higher in the limestone area than in the basalt sites. In addition, the water EC increased from the escarpments (396 +/- 176 mu S cm(-1)) towards the outlets of the graben basins (1,670 +/- 942 mu S cm(-1)). These water EC hotspots in the dry season imply that the river basins are in a closing status due to the erratic rainfall and water extraction by humans. However, the rising water EC and moisture stress endanger the existing agricultural development. Because of the extent and seriousness of salinity, integrated catchment management strategies are needed to tackle the degrading water quality and quantity in the marginal grabens along the northern Ethiopia Rift Valley.}},
  author       = {{Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza and Hermans, Laurens and Nyssen, Jan and Frankl, Amaury and Zenebe, Amanuel and Demissie, Biadgilgn and Asfaha, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes and Van Eetvelde, Veerle and Deckers, Jozef and Poesen, Jean}},
  issn         = {{1085-3278}},
  journal      = {{LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT}},
  keywords     = {{LAND-COVER CHANGES,IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE,SOIL SALINIZATION,SOUTH-WESTERN,RIVER,GROUNDWATER,VALLEY,VARIABILITY,BASIN,MANAGEMENT,basin closure,electrical conductivity,flash floods,Rift Valley,thresholds}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{1407--1422}},
  title        = {{Spatial and temporal patterns of water salinity in the marginal grabens of Ethiopia's Danakil Depression}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3321}},
  volume       = {{30}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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