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Lower in vitro rumen metabolization of mycotoxins at conditions of rumen acidosis and dry conditions

Sandra Debevere (UGent) , Siegrid De Baere (UGent) , Geert Haesaert (UGent) , Siska Croubels (UGent) and Veerle Fievez (UGent)
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Abstract
Ruminants are generally considered less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as the rumen microbiota are able to detoxify some of these toxins. Despite this potential degradation, mycotoxin associated subclinical health problems are seen in high productive dairy cows. In this in vitro research, two hypotheses were tested: 1/ a lower rumen pH leads to a decreased degradation of mycotoxins and 2/ rumen fluid (RF) of lactating cows degrade mycotoxins better than RF of dry cows given their metabolically more active microbial population. Maize silage was spiked with a mixture of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), enniatin B (ENN B), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROQ-C) and zearalenone (ZEN). Fresh RF of 2 lactating cows (L) and 2 dry cows (D) was added to a buffer of normal pH (6.8) and low pH (5.8), leading to 4 combinations (L6.8, L5.8, D6.8, D5.8) that was combined with the spiked substrate. After 24h of incubation, a complete detoxification of DON occurred at pH 6.8, in contrast with pH 5.8, where 14% and 91% of DON was still present for L5.8 and D5.8, respectively. NIV could not be detected anymore after 24h of incubation at pH 6.8, in contrast with pH 5.8, where 38% was still present for L5.8 and 100% for D5.8. For ZEN, after 48h of incubation, a partial transformation of ZEN to α-ZEL (13-22%) and β-ZEL (4-5%) was only observed at pH 6.8. After 48h of incubation, disappearance of ENN B could be seen at pH 6.8 (L: 71%, D: 43%), but not at pH 5.8. For MPA and ROQ-C, neither pH nor lactation stage had an effect on the metabolization. In conclusion, low ruminal pH (e.g. SARA conditions) and bacterial inoculum of dry cows can have a lower ruminal degradation of certain mycotoxins such as DON, NIV, ZEN and ENN B. Hence, these mycotoxins could reach the small intestine intact and exert their toxic effects.

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Chicago
Debevere, Sandra, Siegrid De Baere, Geert Haesaert, Siska Croubels, and Veerle Fievez. 2019. “Lower in Vitro Rumen Metabolization of Mycotoxins at Conditions of Rumen Acidosis and Dry Conditions.” In Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, 555. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
APA
Debevere, S., De Baere, S., Haesaert, G., Croubels, S., & Fievez, V. (2019). Lower in vitro rumen metabolization of mycotoxins at conditions of rumen acidosis and dry conditions. Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (p. 555). Presented at the EAAP 2019, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Vancouver
1.
Debevere S, De Baere S, Haesaert G, Croubels S, Fievez V. Lower in vitro rumen metabolization of mycotoxins at conditions of rumen acidosis and dry conditions. Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2019. p. 555.
MLA
Debevere, Sandra et al. “Lower in Vitro Rumen Metabolization of Mycotoxins at Conditions of Rumen Acidosis and Dry Conditions.” Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2019. 555. Print.
@inproceedings{8627628,
  abstract     = {Ruminants are generally considered less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as the rumen microbiota are able to detoxify some of these toxins. Despite this potential degradation, mycotoxin associated subclinical health problems are seen in high productive dairy cows. In this in vitro research, two hypotheses were tested: 1/ a lower rumen pH leads to a decreased degradation of mycotoxins and 2/ rumen fluid (RF) of lactating cows degrade mycotoxins better than RF of dry cows given their metabolically more active microbial population. Maize silage was spiked with a mixture of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), enniatin B (ENN B), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROQ-C) and zearalenone (ZEN). Fresh RF of 2 lactating cows (L) and 2 dry cows (D) was added to a buffer of normal pH (6.8) and low pH (5.8), leading to 4 combinations (L6.8, L5.8, D6.8, D5.8) that was combined with the spiked substrate. After 24h of incubation, a complete detoxification of DON occurred at pH 6.8, in contrast with pH 5.8, where 14% and 91% of DON was still present for L5.8 and D5.8, respectively. NIV could not be detected anymore after 24h of incubation at pH 6.8, in contrast with pH 5.8, where 38% was still present for L5.8 and 100% for D5.8. For ZEN, after 48h of incubation, a partial transformation of ZEN to α-ZEL (13-22%) and β-ZEL (4-5%) was only observed at pH 6.8. After 48h of incubation, disappearance of ENN B could be seen at pH 6.8 (L: 71%, D: 43%), but not at pH 5.8. For MPA and ROQ-C, neither pH nor lactation stage had an effect on the metabolization. In conclusion, low ruminal pH (e.g. SARA conditions) and bacterial inoculum of dry cows can have a lower ruminal degradation of certain mycotoxins such as DON, NIV, ZEN and ENN B. Hence, these mycotoxins could reach the small intestine intact and exert their toxic effects.},
  author       = {Debevere, Sandra and De Baere, Siegrid and Haesaert, Geert and Croubels, Siska and Fievez, Veerle},
  booktitle    = {Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science},
  location     = {Ghent},
  publisher    = {Wageningen Academic Publishers},
  title        = {Lower in vitro rumen metabolization of mycotoxins at conditions of rumen acidosis and dry conditions},
  year         = {2019},
}