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Heat transfer evaluation during twin-screw wet granulation in view of detailed process understanding

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Abstract
During the last decade, the pharmaceutical industry has shown a growing interest in continuous twin-screw granulation (TSG). Despite flourishing literature on TSG, limited studies focused on fundamental process understanding on its mechanisms. In current study, granule quality attributes along the length of the TSG barrel were evaluated together with heat transfer in order to achieve a more fundamental understanding of the granulation process. An experimental setup was developed allowing the collection of granules at the different TSG compartments. In addition to the determination of typical granule attributes, mechanical energy, barrel and granule temperature (measured using an in-line implemented infra-red camera) were measured to evaluate heat transfer occurring at the different compartments and to relate them to granulation mechanisms. Collected data identified wetting enthalpy and friction forces as the main sources of heat along the granulator length. Wetting occurred in the wetting zone and generated temperature increase depending on liquid-to-solid ratio and powder wettability. In the kneading zones, granule temperature increase was proportional to mechanical energy. While it is usually admitted that granule consolidation and reshaping are the consequence of the high shear experienced by the granules, it was highlighted that most of the mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy with no correlation between mechanical energy and granule size distribution. Combined mass and energy balance of the granulation process are therefore necessary to capture the interaction between granule properties and physico-chemical and mechanical phenomena occurring in each compartment.
Keywords
heat transfer, twin-screw granulation, CRITICAL QUALITY ATTRIBUTES, REGIME MAP, GRANULES, BATCH, MODEL, BREAKAGE, IMPACT, SIZE, BIOMATH

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Chicago
Stauffer, Fanny, Alexander Ryckaert, Daan Van Hauwermeiren, Adrian Funke, Dejan Djuric, Ingmar Nopens, and Thomas De Beer. 2019. “Heat Transfer Evaluation During Twin-screw Wet Granulation in View of Detailed Process Understanding.” Aaps Pharmscitech 20 (7).
APA
Stauffer, Fanny, Ryckaert, A., Van Hauwermeiren, D., Funke, A., Djuric, D., Nopens, I., & De Beer, T. (2019). Heat transfer evaluation during twin-screw wet granulation in view of detailed process understanding. AAPS PHARMSCITECH, 20(7).
Vancouver
1.
Stauffer F, Ryckaert A, Van Hauwermeiren D, Funke A, Djuric D, Nopens I, et al. Heat transfer evaluation during twin-screw wet granulation in view of detailed process understanding. AAPS PHARMSCITECH. 2019;20(7).
MLA
Stauffer, Fanny et al. “Heat Transfer Evaluation During Twin-screw Wet Granulation in View of Detailed Process Understanding.” AAPS PHARMSCITECH 20.7 (2019): n. pag. Print.
@article{8627487,
  abstract     = {During the last decade, the pharmaceutical industry has shown a growing interest in continuous twin-screw granulation (TSG). Despite flourishing literature on TSG, limited studies focused on fundamental process understanding on its mechanisms. In current study, granule quality attributes along the length of the TSG barrel were evaluated together with heat transfer in order to achieve a more fundamental understanding of the granulation process. An experimental setup was developed allowing the collection of granules at the different TSG compartments. In addition to the determination of typical granule attributes, mechanical energy, barrel and granule temperature (measured using an in-line implemented infra-red camera) were measured to evaluate heat transfer occurring at the different compartments and to relate them to granulation mechanisms. Collected data identified wetting enthalpy and friction forces as the main sources of heat along the granulator length. Wetting occurred in the wetting zone and generated temperature increase depending on liquid-to-solid ratio and powder wettability. In the kneading zones, granule temperature increase was proportional to mechanical energy. While it is usually admitted that granule consolidation and reshaping are the consequence of the high shear experienced by the granules, it was highlighted that most of the mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy with no correlation between mechanical energy and granule size distribution. Combined mass and energy balance of the granulation process are therefore necessary to capture the interaction between granule properties and physico-chemical and mechanical phenomena occurring in each compartment.},
  articleno    = {291},
  author       = {Stauffer, Fanny and Ryckaert, Alexander and Van Hauwermeiren, Daan and Funke, Adrian and Djuric, Dejan and Nopens, Ingmar and De Beer, Thomas},
  issn         = {1530-9932},
  journal      = {AAPS PHARMSCITECH},
  keywords     = {heat transfer,twin-screw granulation,CRITICAL QUALITY ATTRIBUTES,REGIME MAP,GRANULES,BATCH,MODEL,BREAKAGE,IMPACT,SIZE,BIOMATH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Heat transfer evaluation during twin-screw wet granulation in view of detailed process understanding},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-019-1483-z},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2019},
}

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