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The mycotoxin patulin : an updated short review on occurrence, toxicity and analytical challenges

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Abstract
Patulin (PAT) is a common mycotoxin in fruit products, especially in apples and apple-based products. The European Commission has set maximum levels for PAT in food. Nevertheless, worrying PAT levels were recently recorded in diverse foods across the world. Therefore, a worldwide follow-up of PAT-levels in foods should be considered. Because of PAT's high probability in food products, the toxicological implications for humans need to be addressed as well. Recent studies proved adverse health effects of PAT, such as hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal alterations and inmunotoxicity. In comparison to the toxicity of other mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A, PAT's immunotoxicity can be even more outspoken destructive. In addition, PAT is a low-molecular-weight and highly polar molecule, resulting in many analytical challenges for its detection. As the analytical techniques are continuously improving, PAT determination in multi-mycotoxin analysis has advanced using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) during the last year. Finally, the presence and toxicity of PAT requires a biomarker method to assess its exposure among the population. To date, however, there is no information regarding PAT biomarkers in biological samples. This short review highlights the PAT-occurrence profile, toxicological discoveries and analytical challenges of 2014 until to date.
Keywords
Mycotoxin, Patulin, Occurrence, Analysis, Toxicity, APPLE-BASED FOOD, FRUIT JUICES, PENICILLIUM-EXPANSUM, MULTIPLE MYCOTOXINS, PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN, OXIDATIVE STRESS, DIETARY-INTAKE, OCHRATOXIN-A, PRODUCTS, EXPOSURE

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MLA
Vidal Corominas, Arnau et al. “The Mycotoxin Patulin : an Updated Short Review on Occurrence, Toxicity and Analytical Challenges.” FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY 129 (2019): 249–256. Print.
APA
Vidal Corominas, A., Ouhibi, S., Ghali, R., Hedhili, A., De Saeger, S., & De Boevre, M. (2019). The mycotoxin patulin : an updated short review on occurrence, toxicity and analytical challenges. FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, 129, 249–256.
Chicago author-date
Vidal Corominas, Arnau, Salma Ouhibi, Ridha Ghali, Abderrazek Hedhili, Sarah De Saeger, and Marthe De Boevre. 2019. “The Mycotoxin Patulin : an Updated Short Review on Occurrence, Toxicity and Analytical Challenges.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 129: 249–256.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vidal Corominas, Arnau, Salma Ouhibi, Ridha Ghali, Abderrazek Hedhili, Sarah De Saeger, and Marthe De Boevre. 2019. “The Mycotoxin Patulin : an Updated Short Review on Occurrence, Toxicity and Analytical Challenges.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 129: 249–256.
Vancouver
1.
Vidal Corominas A, Ouhibi S, Ghali R, Hedhili A, De Saeger S, De Boevre M. The mycotoxin patulin : an updated short review on occurrence, toxicity and analytical challenges. FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY. 2019;129:249–56.
IEEE
[1]
A. Vidal Corominas, S. Ouhibi, R. Ghali, A. Hedhili, S. De Saeger, and M. De Boevre, “The mycotoxin patulin : an updated short review on occurrence, toxicity and analytical challenges,” FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol. 129, pp. 249–256, 2019.
@article{8627290,
  abstract     = {Patulin (PAT) is a common mycotoxin in fruit products, especially in apples and apple-based products. The European Commission has set maximum levels for PAT in food. Nevertheless, worrying PAT levels were recently recorded in diverse foods across the world. Therefore, a worldwide follow-up of PAT-levels in foods should be considered. Because of PAT's high probability in food products, the toxicological implications for humans need to be addressed as well. Recent studies proved adverse health effects of PAT, such as hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal alterations and inmunotoxicity. In comparison to the toxicity of other mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A, PAT's immunotoxicity can be even more outspoken destructive. In addition, PAT is a low-molecular-weight and highly polar molecule, resulting in many analytical challenges for its detection. As the analytical techniques are continuously improving, PAT determination in multi-mycotoxin analysis has advanced using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) during the last year. Finally, the presence and toxicity of PAT requires a biomarker method to assess its exposure among the population. To date, however, there is no information regarding PAT biomarkers in biological samples. This short review highlights the PAT-occurrence profile, toxicological discoveries and analytical challenges of 2014 until to date.},
  author       = {Vidal Corominas, Arnau and Ouhibi, Salma and Ghali, Ridha and Hedhili, Abderrazek and De Saeger, Sarah and De Boevre, Marthe},
  issn         = {0278-6915},
  journal      = {FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Mycotoxin,Patulin,Occurrence,Analysis,Toxicity,APPLE-BASED FOOD,FRUIT JUICES,PENICILLIUM-EXPANSUM,MULTIPLE MYCOTOXINS,PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN,OXIDATIVE STRESS,DIETARY-INTAKE,OCHRATOXIN-A,PRODUCTS,EXPOSURE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {249--256},
  title        = {The mycotoxin patulin : an updated short review on occurrence, toxicity and analytical challenges},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.04.048},
  volume       = {129},
  year         = {2019},
}

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