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Mitigating Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

(2019) AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA. 40(3). p.265-290
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Abstract
The infectious chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been responsible for severe population declines of salamander populations in Europe. Serious population declines and loss of urodelan diversity may occur if appropriate action is not taken to mitigate against the further spread and impact of Bsal. We provide an overview of several potential mitigation methods, and describe their possible advantages and limitations. We conclude that long-term, context-dependent, multi-faceted approaches are needed to successfully mitigate adverse effects of Bsal, and that these approaches should be initiated pre-arrival of the pathogen. The establishment of ex situ assurance colonies, or management units, for species threatened with extinction, should be considered as soon as possible. While ex situ conservation and preventive measures aimed at improving biosecurity by limiting amphibian trade may be implemented quickly, major challenges that lie ahead are in designing in situ disease containment and mitigation post-arrival and in increasing public awareness.
Keywords
amphibians, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, biosecurity, chytrid fungus, chytridiomycosis, conservation, emerging diseases, mitigation, salamanders, trade, REAL-TIME PCR, CHYTRID FUNGUS, AMPHIBIAN CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, CITIZEN SCIENCE, SP-NOV, CONSERVATION, DENDROBATIDIS, DYNAMICS, RISK, PATHOGENS

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MLA
Thomas, Valarie, et al. “Mitigating Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Europe.” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA, vol. 40, no. 3, 2019, pp. 265–90, doi:10.1163/15685381-20191157.
APA
Thomas, V., Wang, Y., Van Rooij, P., Verbrugghe, E., Baláž, V., Bosch, J., … Pasmans, F. (2019). Mitigating Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe. AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA, 40(3), 265–290. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685381-20191157
Chicago author-date
Thomas, Valarie, Yu Wang, Pascale Van Rooij, Elin Verbrugghe, Vojtech Baláž, Jaime Bosch, Andrew A Cunningham, et al. 2019. “Mitigating Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Europe.” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA 40 (3): 265–90. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685381-20191157.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Thomas, Valarie, Yu Wang, Pascale Van Rooij, Elin Verbrugghe, Vojtech Baláž, Jaime Bosch, Andrew A Cunningham, Matthew C Fisher, Trenton WJ Garner, Maarten J Gilbert, Elena Grasselli, Thierry Kinet, Arnaud Laudelout, Stefan Lötters, Adeline Loyau, Claude Miaud, Sebastiano Salvidio, Dirk S Schmeller, Benedikt R Schmidt, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Michael Veith, Miguel Vences, Norman Wagner, Stefano Canessa, An Martel, and Frank Pasmans. 2019. “Mitigating Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans in Europe.” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA 40 (3): 265–290. doi:10.1163/15685381-20191157.
Vancouver
1.
Thomas V, Wang Y, Van Rooij P, Verbrugghe E, Baláž V, Bosch J, et al. Mitigating Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe. AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA. 2019;40(3):265–90.
IEEE
[1]
V. Thomas et al., “Mitigating Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe,” AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 265–290, 2019.
@article{8627115,
  abstract     = {{The infectious chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been responsible for severe population declines of salamander populations in Europe. Serious population declines and loss of urodelan diversity may occur if appropriate action is not taken to mitigate against the further spread and impact of Bsal. We provide an overview of several potential mitigation methods, and describe their possible advantages and limitations. We conclude that long-term, context-dependent, multi-faceted approaches are needed to successfully mitigate adverse effects of Bsal, and that these approaches should be initiated pre-arrival of the pathogen. The establishment of ex situ assurance colonies, or management units, for species threatened with extinction, should be considered as soon as possible. While ex situ conservation and preventive measures aimed at improving biosecurity by limiting amphibian trade may be implemented quickly, major challenges that lie ahead are in designing in situ disease containment and mitigation post-arrival and in increasing public awareness.}},
  author       = {{Thomas, Valarie and Wang, Yu and Van Rooij, Pascale and Verbrugghe, Elin and Baláž, Vojtech and Bosch, Jaime and Cunningham, Andrew A and Fisher, Matthew C and Garner, Trenton WJ and Gilbert, Maarten J and Grasselli, Elena and Kinet, Thierry and Laudelout, Arnaud and Lötters, Stefan and Loyau, Adeline and Miaud, Claude and Salvidio, Sebastiano and Schmeller, Dirk S and Schmidt, Benedikt R and Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke and Steinfartz, Sebastian and Veith, Michael and Vences, Miguel and Wagner, Norman and Canessa, Stefano and Martel, An and Pasmans, Frank}},
  issn         = {{0173-5373}},
  journal      = {{AMPHIBIA-REPTILIA}},
  keywords     = {{amphibians,Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,biosecurity,chytrid fungus,chytridiomycosis,conservation,emerging diseases,mitigation,salamanders,trade,REAL-TIME PCR,CHYTRID FUNGUS,AMPHIBIAN CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,CITIZEN SCIENCE,SP-NOV,CONSERVATION,DENDROBATIDIS,DYNAMICS,RISK,PATHOGENS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{265--290}},
  title        = {{Mitigating Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15685381-20191157}},
  volume       = {{40}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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