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Do a humanoid robot and music increase the motivation to perform physical activity? : a quasi-experimental cohort in typical developing children and preliminary findings in hospitalized children in neutropenia

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Abstract
Background: It can be difficult to motivate children to participate in physical exercises, especially when they have oncological disorders. Purpose: examine the effect of a humanoid robot and music on motivation to participate in physical activity in typically developing children (TDC) and children with oncological disorders (COD). Methods: Two cohort studies were conducted; in an elementary school in Belgium (N = 75TDC, 4-13years) and pediatric cancer ward of Ghent University Hospital (N = 13COD, 3-15years). Participants completed four gross motor exercise conditions; with a human or humanoid robot instructor and with or without music. Motivation was assessed using the Smileyometer (amount of fun), Again score (amount of chosen repetitions) and Fun Sorter (which condition was most fun). Results: TDC indicated higher Smileyometer-scores in the two conditions with music. The Again score revealed no preference in either group. In TDC and COD, the results of the Fun Sorter indicated that conditions with music or the robot were more fun than without music or with the human instructor. The combination of the robot and music was most preferred. Conclusions: Music or a humanoid robot seemed to increase children's initial motivation to participate in physical activity, also in hospitalized COD. Further research should evaluate the long-term effects.
Keywords
Pediatrics, Neutropenia, Physical therapy specialty, Robotics, Motivation, Human-computer interaction, SELF-DETERMINATION, VIDEO GAMES, PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY, EXERCISE, CANCER, QUALITY, ADOLESCENTS, LEUKEMIA, THERAPY, SPORTS

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MLA
Meyns, Pieter, et al. “Do a Humanoid Robot and Music Increase the Motivation to Perform Physical Activity? : A Quasi-Experimental Cohort in Typical Developing Children and Preliminary Findings in Hospitalized Children in Neutropenia.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES, vol. 122, 2019, pp. 90–102.
APA
Meyns, P., van der Spank, J., Capiau, H., De Cock, L., Van Steirteghem, E., Van Der Looven, R., & Van Waelvelde, H. (2019). Do a humanoid robot and music increase the motivation to perform physical activity? : a quasi-experimental cohort in typical developing children and preliminary findings in hospitalized children in neutropenia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES, 122, 90–102.
Chicago author-date
Meyns, Pieter, Judith van der Spank, Hanne Capiau, Lieve De Cock, Eline Van Steirteghem, Ruth Van Der Looven, and Hilde Van Waelvelde. 2019. “Do a Humanoid Robot and Music Increase the Motivation to Perform Physical Activity? : A Quasi-Experimental Cohort in Typical Developing Children and Preliminary Findings in Hospitalized Children in Neutropenia.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES 122: 90–102.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Meyns, Pieter, Judith van der Spank, Hanne Capiau, Lieve De Cock, Eline Van Steirteghem, Ruth Van Der Looven, and Hilde Van Waelvelde. 2019. “Do a Humanoid Robot and Music Increase the Motivation to Perform Physical Activity? : A Quasi-Experimental Cohort in Typical Developing Children and Preliminary Findings in Hospitalized Children in Neutropenia.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES 122: 90–102.
Vancouver
1.
Meyns P, van der Spank J, Capiau H, De Cock L, Van Steirteghem E, Van Der Looven R, et al. Do a humanoid robot and music increase the motivation to perform physical activity? : a quasi-experimental cohort in typical developing children and preliminary findings in hospitalized children in neutropenia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES. 2019;122:90–102.
IEEE
[1]
P. Meyns et al., “Do a humanoid robot and music increase the motivation to perform physical activity? : a quasi-experimental cohort in typical developing children and preliminary findings in hospitalized children in neutropenia,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES, vol. 122, pp. 90–102, 2019.
@article{8626390,
  abstract     = {Background: It can be difficult to motivate children to participate in physical exercises, especially when they have oncological disorders. 
Purpose: examine the effect of a humanoid robot and music on motivation to participate in physical activity in typically developing children (TDC) and children with oncological disorders (COD). 
Methods: Two cohort studies were conducted; in an elementary school in Belgium (N = 75TDC, 4-13years) and pediatric cancer ward of Ghent University Hospital (N = 13COD, 3-15years). Participants completed four gross motor exercise conditions; with a human or humanoid robot instructor and with or without music. Motivation was assessed using the Smileyometer (amount of fun), Again score (amount of chosen repetitions) and Fun Sorter (which condition was most fun). 
Results: TDC indicated higher Smileyometer-scores in the two conditions with music. The Again score revealed no preference in either group. In TDC and COD, the results of the Fun Sorter indicated that conditions with music or the robot were more fun than without music or with the human instructor. The combination of the robot and music was most preferred. 
Conclusions: Music or a humanoid robot seemed to increase children's initial motivation to participate in physical activity, also in hospitalized COD. Further research should evaluate the long-term effects.},
  author       = {Meyns, Pieter and van der Spank, Judith and Capiau, Hanne and De Cock, Lieve and Van Steirteghem, Eline and Van der Looven, Ruth and Van Waelvelde, Hilde},
  issn         = {1071-5819},
  journal      = { INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
  keywords     = {Pediatrics,Neutropenia,Physical therapy specialty,Robotics,Motivation,Human-computer interaction,SELF-DETERMINATION,VIDEO GAMES,PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY,EXERCISE,CANCER,QUALITY,ADOLESCENTS,LEUKEMIA,THERAPY,SPORTS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {90--102},
  title        = {Do a humanoid robot and music increase the motivation to perform physical activity? : a quasi-experimental cohort in typical developing children and preliminary findings in hospitalized children in neutropenia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2018.07.010},
  volume       = {122},
  year         = {2019},
}

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