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A review of rare, poorly known, and morphologically problematic extant marine organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst taxa of the orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere

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Abstract
Dinoflagellates are a major component of the modern plankton. Of the 2192 species of marine free-living dinoflagellates presently described, an increasing number are being shown to produce resting cysts (probably hypnozygotes) within their life cycle. With rare exception, only the resting cysts fossilize, so they are of central importance in tracing the history of dinoflagellates through geological time. Cysts of many of the more common dinoflagellate species have distinctive morphologies allowing their geographic and stratigraphic occurrences to be traced. An ever-increasing number of taxa are also being shown to produce distinctive and geologically preservable cysts, potentially enhancing our knowledge of the diverse representation of dinoflagellates through time. Here the organic-walled cysts of 73 rare, poorly known or morphologically problematic marine dinoflagellate cyst species belonging to the orders Gymnodiniales (nine species) and Peridiniales (64 species) are reviewed, described and illustrated, and their stratigraphic ranges assessed. The names Echinidinium aculeatum and Echinidinium transparantum are validated.
Keywords
Palaeontology, Oceanography, Archaeperidinium, Diplopsalis, Dubridinium, Echinidinium, Gymnodinium, Lejeunecysta, Protoperidinium, SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE, MOTILE STAGE RELATIONSHIPS, SOUTH-EAST COAST, THECA RELATIONSHIP, RECENT SEDIMENTS, PHYLOGENETIC POSITIONS, SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION, DIPLOPSALIS-GROUP, LATE QUATERNARY, FRESH-WATER

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MLA
Mertens, Kenneth Neil, et al. “A Review of Rare, Poorly Known, and Morphologically Problematic Extant Marine Organic-Walled Dinoflagellate Cyst Taxa of the Orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere.” MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY, vol. 159, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2019.101773.
APA
Mertens, K. N., Gu, H., Gurdebeke, P., Takano, Y., Clarke, D., Aydin, H., … Head, M. J. (2020). A review of rare, poorly known, and morphologically problematic extant marine organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst taxa of the orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere. MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY, 159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2019.101773
Chicago author-date
Mertens, Kenneth Neil, Haifeng Gu, Pieter Gurdebeke, Yoshihito Takano, Dave Clarke, Hilal Aydin, Zhen Li, et al. 2020. “A Review of Rare, Poorly Known, and Morphologically Problematic Extant Marine Organic-Walled Dinoflagellate Cyst Taxa of the Orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere.” MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY 159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2019.101773.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mertens, Kenneth Neil, Haifeng Gu, Pieter Gurdebeke, Yoshihito Takano, Dave Clarke, Hilal Aydin, Zhen Li, Vera Pospelova, Hyeon Ho Shin, Zhun Li, Kazumi Matsuoka, and Martin J Head. 2020. “A Review of Rare, Poorly Known, and Morphologically Problematic Extant Marine Organic-Walled Dinoflagellate Cyst Taxa of the Orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere.” MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY 159. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2019.101773.
Vancouver
1.
Mertens KN, Gu H, Gurdebeke P, Takano Y, Clarke D, Aydin H, et al. A review of rare, poorly known, and morphologically problematic extant marine organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst taxa of the orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere. MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY. 2020;159.
IEEE
[1]
K. N. Mertens et al., “A review of rare, poorly known, and morphologically problematic extant marine organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst taxa of the orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere,” MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY, vol. 159, 2020.
@article{8626350,
  abstract     = {Dinoflagellates are a major component of the modern plankton. Of the 2192 species of marine free-living dinoflagellates presently described, an increasing number are being shown to produce resting cysts (probably hypnozygotes) within their life cycle. With rare exception, only the resting cysts fossilize, so they are of central importance in tracing the history of dinoflagellates through geological time. Cysts of many of the more common dinoflagellate species have distinctive morphologies allowing their geographic and stratigraphic occurrences to be traced. An ever-increasing number of taxa are also being shown to produce distinctive and geologically preservable cysts, potentially enhancing our knowledge of the diverse representation of dinoflagellates through time. Here the organic-walled cysts of 73 rare, poorly known or morphologically problematic marine dinoflagellate cyst species belonging to the orders Gymnodiniales (nine species) and Peridiniales (64 species) are reviewed, described and illustrated, and their stratigraphic ranges assessed. The names Echinidinium aculeatum and Echinidinium transparantum are validated.},
  articleno    = {101773},
  author       = {Mertens, Kenneth Neil and Gu, Haifeng and Gurdebeke, Pieter and Takano, Yoshihito and Clarke, Dave and Aydin, Hilal and Li, Zhen and Pospelova, Vera and Shin, Hyeon Ho and Li, Zhun and Matsuoka, Kazumi and Head, Martin J},
  issn         = {0377-8398},
  journal      = {MARINE MICROPALEONTOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Palaeontology,Oceanography,Archaeperidinium,Diplopsalis,Dubridinium,Echinidinium,Gymnodinium,Lejeunecysta,Protoperidinium,SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE,MOTILE STAGE RELATIONSHIPS,SOUTH-EAST COAST,THECA RELATIONSHIP,RECENT SEDIMENTS,PHYLOGENETIC POSITIONS,SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION,DIPLOPSALIS-GROUP,LATE QUATERNARY,FRESH-WATER},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {35},
  title        = {A review of rare, poorly known, and morphologically problematic extant marine organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst taxa of the orders Gymnodiniales and Peridiniales from the Northern Hemisphere},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2019.101773},
  volume       = {159},
  year         = {2020},
}

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