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Arboviruses and the challenge to establish systemic and persistent infections in competent mosquito vectors : the interaction with the RNAi mechanism

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Abstract
Arboviruses are capable to establish long-term persistent infections in mosquitoes that do not affect significantly the physiology of the insect vectors. Arbovirus infections are controlled by the RNAi machinery via the production of viral siRNAs and the formation of RISC complexes targeting viral genomes and mRNAs. Engineered arboviruses that contain cellular gene sequences can therefore be transformed to "viral silencing vectors" for studies of gene function in reverse genetics approaches. More specifically, "ideal" viral silencing vectors must be competent to induce robust RNAi effects while other interactions with the host immune system should be kept at a minimum to reduce non-specific effects. Because of their inconspicuous nature, arboviruses may approach the "ideal" viral silencing vectors in insects and it is therefore worthwhile to study the mechanisms by which the interactions with the RNAi machinery occur. In this review, an analysis is presented of the antiviral RNAi response in mosquito vectors with respect to the major types of arboviruses (alphaviruses, flaviviruses, bunyaviruses, and others). With respect to antiviral defense, the exo-RNAi pathway constitutes the major mechanism while the contribution of both miRNAs and viral piRNAs remains a contentious issue. However, additional mechanisms exist in mosquitoes that are capable to enhance or restrict the efficiency of viral silencing vectors such as the amplification of RNAi effects by DNA forms, the existence of incorporated viral elements in the genome and the induction of a non-specific systemic response by Dicer-2. Of significance is the observation that no major "viral suppressors of RNAi" (VSRs) seem to be encoded by arboviral genomes, indicating that relatively tight control of the activity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may be sufficient to maintain the persistent character of arbovirus infections. Major strategies for improvement of viral silencing vectors therefore are proposed to involve engineering of VSRs and modifying of the properties of the RdRp. Because of safety issues (pathogen status), however, arbovirus-based silencing vectors are not well suited for practical applications, such as RNAi-based mosquito control. In that case, related mosquito-specific viruses that also establish persistent infections and may cause similar RNAi responses may represent a valuable alternative solution.
Keywords
arbovirus, mosquito, persistent infection, RNAi, siRNA, piRNA, antiviral defense, viral suppressor of RNAi, DENGUE VIRUS TYPE-2, TRANSGENE-MEDIATED SUPPRESSION, SUBGENOMIC FLAVIVIRUS RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA, RIFT-VALLEY FEVER, AEDES-AEGYPTI, INTERFERENCE RNAI, INNATE IMMUNITY, SINDBIS VIRUS, ENGINEERED RESISTANCE

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MLA
Liu, Jisheng, et al. “Arboviruses and the Challenge to Establish Systemic and Persistent Infections in Competent Mosquito Vectors : The Interaction with the RNAi Mechanism.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 10, 2019.
APA
Liu, J., Swevers, L., Kolliopoulou, A., & Smagghe, G. (2019). Arboviruses and the challenge to establish systemic and persistent infections in competent mosquito vectors : the interaction with the RNAi mechanism. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, 10.
Chicago author-date
Liu, Jisheng, Luc Swevers, Anna Kolliopoulou, and Guy Smagghe. 2019. “Arboviruses and the Challenge to Establish Systemic and Persistent Infections in Competent Mosquito Vectors : The Interaction with the RNAi Mechanism.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 10.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liu, Jisheng, Luc Swevers, Anna Kolliopoulou, and Guy Smagghe. 2019. “Arboviruses and the Challenge to Establish Systemic and Persistent Infections in Competent Mosquito Vectors : The Interaction with the RNAi Mechanism.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 10.
Vancouver
1.
Liu J, Swevers L, Kolliopoulou A, Smagghe G. Arboviruses and the challenge to establish systemic and persistent infections in competent mosquito vectors : the interaction with the RNAi mechanism. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. 2019;10.
IEEE
[1]
J. Liu, L. Swevers, A. Kolliopoulou, and G. Smagghe, “Arboviruses and the challenge to establish systemic and persistent infections in competent mosquito vectors : the interaction with the RNAi mechanism,” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 10, 2019.
@article{8625644,
  abstract     = {{Arboviruses are capable to establish long-term persistent infections in mosquitoes that do not affect significantly the physiology of the insect vectors. Arbovirus infections are controlled by the RNAi machinery via the production of viral siRNAs and the formation of RISC complexes targeting viral genomes and mRNAs. Engineered arboviruses that contain cellular gene sequences can therefore be transformed to "viral silencing vectors" for studies of gene function in reverse genetics approaches. More specifically, "ideal" viral silencing vectors must be competent to induce robust RNAi effects while other interactions with the host immune system should be kept at a minimum to reduce non-specific effects. Because of their inconspicuous nature, arboviruses may approach the "ideal" viral silencing vectors in insects and it is therefore worthwhile to study the mechanisms by which the interactions with the RNAi machinery occur. In this review, an analysis is presented of the antiviral RNAi response in mosquito vectors with respect to the major types of arboviruses (alphaviruses, flaviviruses, bunyaviruses, and others). With respect to antiviral defense, the exo-RNAi pathway constitutes the major mechanism while the contribution of both miRNAs and viral piRNAs remains a contentious issue. However, additional mechanisms exist in mosquitoes that are capable to enhance or restrict the efficiency of viral silencing vectors such as the amplification of RNAi effects by DNA forms, the existence of incorporated viral elements in the genome and the induction of a non-specific systemic response by Dicer-2. Of significance is the observation that no major "viral suppressors of RNAi" (VSRs) seem to be encoded by arboviral genomes, indicating that relatively tight control of the activity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may be sufficient to maintain the persistent character of arbovirus infections. Major strategies for improvement of viral silencing vectors therefore are proposed to involve engineering of VSRs and modifying of the properties of the RdRp. Because of safety issues (pathogen status), however, arbovirus-based silencing vectors are not well suited for practical applications, such as RNAi-based mosquito control. In that case, related mosquito-specific viruses that also establish persistent infections and may cause similar RNAi responses may represent a valuable alternative solution.}},
  articleno    = {{890}},
  author       = {{Liu, Jisheng and Swevers, Luc and Kolliopoulou, Anna and Smagghe, Guy}},
  issn         = {{1664-042X}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{arbovirus,mosquito,persistent infection,RNAi,siRNA,piRNA,antiviral defense,viral suppressor of RNAi,DENGUE VIRUS TYPE-2,TRANSGENE-MEDIATED SUPPRESSION,SUBGENOMIC FLAVIVIRUS RNA,DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA,RIFT-VALLEY FEVER,AEDES-AEGYPTI,INTERFERENCE RNAI,INNATE IMMUNITY,SINDBIS VIRUS,ENGINEERED RESISTANCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{29}},
  title        = {{Arboviruses and the challenge to establish systemic and persistent infections in competent mosquito vectors : the interaction with the RNAi mechanism}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00890}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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