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Methods for characterization and optimisation of measuring performance of stereoscopic x-ray systems with image intensifiers

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Abstract
The use of biplanar high-speed x-ray fluoroscopy to study fast, 3D movements that are inaccessible from external views has grown significantly in the past decade. Owing to the development of specialised software for calibration, distortion correction, and automated tracking of radio-opaque marker implants, this technique will soon become the standard to analyse skeletal kinematics of vertebrate animals. However, tests of important characteristics of biplanar x-ray systems, such as resolution and precision, remain scarce and incomplete. We present methods to determine imaging resolution and 3D stereoscopic and dynamic resolutions to follow moving markers in 3D, and demonstrate them on a newly installed stereoscopic x-ray system with image intensifiers. Using four-megapixel cameras, image resolution slightly surpasses previous reports. The spatial resolution appears to be optimal at magnification factors (ratio of source-to-detector to source-to-subject distance) between 1.33 and 2.20. This new information will allow biplanar x-ray system users to optimise the relative position of tube, subject, and image intensifiers.
Keywords
kinematics, XROMM, cineradiography, fluoroscopy, resolution, precision

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MLA
Sanctorum, JG, et al. “Methods for Characterization and Optimisation of Measuring Performance of Stereoscopic X-Ray Systems with Image Intensifiers.” MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 30, no. 10, 2019.
APA
Sanctorum, J., Adriaens, D., Dirckx, J., Sijbers, J., Van Ginneken, C., Aerts, P., & Van Wassenbergh, S. (2019). Methods for characterization and optimisation of measuring performance of stereoscopic x-ray systems with image intensifiers. MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 30(10).
Chicago author-date
Sanctorum, JG, Dominique Adriaens, JJJ Dirckx, J Sijbers, C Van Ginneken, Peter Aerts, and S Van Wassenbergh. 2019. “Methods for Characterization and Optimisation of Measuring Performance of Stereoscopic X-Ray Systems with Image Intensifiers.” MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 30 (10).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sanctorum, JG, Dominique Adriaens, JJJ Dirckx, J Sijbers, C Van Ginneken, Peter Aerts, and S Van Wassenbergh. 2019. “Methods for Characterization and Optimisation of Measuring Performance of Stereoscopic X-Ray Systems with Image Intensifiers.” MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 30 (10).
Vancouver
1.
Sanctorum J, Adriaens D, Dirckx J, Sijbers J, Van Ginneken C, Aerts P, et al. Methods for characterization and optimisation of measuring performance of stereoscopic x-ray systems with image intensifiers. MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2019;30(10).
IEEE
[1]
J. Sanctorum et al., “Methods for characterization and optimisation of measuring performance of stereoscopic x-ray systems with image intensifiers,” MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 30, no. 10, 2019.
@article{8625407,
  abstract     = {{The use of biplanar high-speed x-ray fluoroscopy to study fast, 3D movements that are inaccessible from external views has grown significantly in the past decade. Owing to the development of specialised software for calibration, distortion correction, and automated tracking of radio-opaque marker implants, this technique will soon become the standard to analyse skeletal kinematics of vertebrate animals. However, tests of important characteristics of biplanar x-ray systems, such as resolution and precision, remain scarce and incomplete. We present methods to determine imaging resolution and 3D stereoscopic and dynamic resolutions to follow moving markers in 3D, and demonstrate them on a newly installed stereoscopic x-ray system with image intensifiers. Using four-megapixel cameras, image resolution slightly surpasses previous reports. The spatial resolution appears to be optimal at magnification factors (ratio of source-to-detector to source-to-subject distance) between 1.33 and 2.20. This new information will allow biplanar x-ray system users to optimise the relative position of tube, subject, and image intensifiers.}},
  articleno    = {{105701}},
  author       = {{Sanctorum, JG and Adriaens, Dominique and Dirckx, JJJ and Sijbers, J and Van Ginneken, C and Aerts, Peter and Van Wassenbergh, S}},
  issn         = {{0957-0233}},
  journal      = {{MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{kinematics,XROMM,cineradiography,fluoroscopy,resolution,precision}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{Methods for characterization and optimisation of measuring performance of stereoscopic x-ray systems with image intensifiers}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ab23e7}},
  volume       = {{30}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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