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Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract
Background: Sedentary behavior occurs largely subconsciously, and thus specific behavior change techniques are needed to increase conscious awareness of sedentary behavior. Chief amongst these behavior change techniques is self-monitoring of sedentary behavior. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of existing interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults. Methods: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library) and grey literature (Google Scholar and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched to identify appropriate intervention studies. Only (cluster-)randomized controlled trials that 1) assessed the short-term effectiveness of an intervention aimed at the reduction of sedentary behavior, 2) used self-monitoring as a behavior change technique, and 3) were conducted in a sample of adults with an average age >= 18 years, were eligible for inclusion. Relevant data were extracted, and Hedge's g was used as the measure of effect sizes. Random effects models were performed to conduct the meta-analysis. Results: Nineteen intervention studies with a total of 2800 participants met the inclusion criteria. Results of the meta-analyses showed that interventions using self-monitoring significantly reduced total sedentary time (Hedges g = 0,32; 95% CI = 0,14 - 0,50; p = 0,001) and occupational sedentary time (Hedge's g = 0,56; 95% CI = 0,07 - 0,90; p = 0,02) on the short term. Subgroup analyses showed that significant intervention effects were only found if objective self-monitoring tools were used (g = 0,40; 95% CI = 0,19 - 0,60; p < 0,001), and if the intervention only targeted sedentary behavior (g = 0,45; 95% CI = 0,15-0,75; p = 0,004). No significant intervention effects were found on the number of breaks in sedentary behavior. Conclusions: Despite the small sample sizes, and the large heterogeneity, results of the current meta-analysis suggested that interventions using self-monitoring as a behavior change technique have the potential to reduce sedentary behavior in adults. If future - preferably large-scale studies - can prove that the reductions in sedentary behavior are attributable to self-monitoring and can confirm the sustainability of this behavior change, multi-level interventions including self-monitoring may impact public health by reducing sedentary behavior.
Keywords
Sitting time, Sedentary time, Electronic devices, Efficacy, Program, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, SITTING TIME, MORTALITY, ASSOCIATION, STRATEGIES, MOVEMENT, PEOPLE, MODEL

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MLA
Compernolle, Sofie et al. “Effectiveness of Interventions Using Self-monitoring to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Adults : a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 16.1 (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Compernolle, S., DeSmet, A., Poppe, L., Crombez, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Cardon, G., van der Ploeg, H. P., et al. (2019). Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 16(1).
Chicago author-date
Compernolle, Sofie, Ann DeSmet, Louise Poppe, Geert Crombez, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Hidde P van der Ploeg, and Delfien Van Dyck. 2019. “Effectiveness of Interventions Using Self-monitoring to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Adults : a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 16 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Compernolle, Sofie, Ann DeSmet, Louise Poppe, Geert Crombez, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Hidde P van der Ploeg, and Delfien Van Dyck. 2019. “Effectiveness of Interventions Using Self-monitoring to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Adults : a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 16 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Compernolle S, DeSmet A, Poppe L, Crombez G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cardon G, et al. Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2019;16(1).
IEEE
[1]
S. Compernolle et al., “Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019.
@article{8625100,
  abstract     = {Background: Sedentary behavior occurs largely subconsciously, and thus specific behavior change techniques are needed to increase conscious awareness of sedentary behavior. Chief amongst these behavior change techniques is self-monitoring of sedentary behavior. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of existing interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults.
Methods: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library) and grey literature (Google Scholar and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched to identify appropriate intervention studies. Only (cluster-)randomized controlled trials that 1) assessed the short-term effectiveness of an intervention aimed at the reduction of sedentary behavior, 2) used self-monitoring as a behavior change technique, and 3) were conducted in a sample of adults with an average age >= 18 years, were eligible for inclusion. Relevant data were extracted, and Hedge's g was used as the measure of effect sizes. Random effects models were performed to conduct the meta-analysis.
Results: Nineteen intervention studies with a total of 2800 participants met the inclusion criteria. Results of the meta-analyses showed that interventions using self-monitoring significantly reduced total sedentary time (Hedges g = 0,32; 95% CI = 0,14 - 0,50; p = 0,001) and occupational sedentary time (Hedge's g = 0,56; 95% CI = 0,07 - 0,90; p = 0,02) on the short term. Subgroup analyses showed that significant intervention effects were only found if objective self-monitoring tools were used (g = 0,40; 95% CI = 0,19 - 0,60; p < 0,001), and if the intervention only targeted sedentary behavior (g = 0,45; 95% CI = 0,15-0,75; p = 0,004). No significant intervention effects were found on the number of breaks in sedentary behavior.
Conclusions: Despite the small sample sizes, and the large heterogeneity, results of the current meta-analysis suggested that interventions using self-monitoring as a behavior change technique have the potential to reduce sedentary behavior in adults. If future - preferably large-scale studies - can prove that the reductions in sedentary behavior are attributable to self-monitoring and can confirm the sustainability of this behavior change, multi-level interventions including self-monitoring may impact public health by reducing sedentary behavior.},
  articleno    = {63},
  author       = {Compernolle, Sofie and DeSmet, Ann and Poppe, Louise and Crombez, Geert and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Cardon, Greet and van der Ploeg, Hidde P and Van Dyck, Delfien},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  keywords     = {Sitting time,Sedentary time,Electronic devices,Efficacy,Program,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,SITTING TIME,MORTALITY,ASSOCIATION,STRATEGIES,MOVEMENT,PEOPLE,MODEL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults : a systematic review and meta-analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0824-3},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2019},
}

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