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Changes on the viral capsid surface during the evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 may lead to a better receptor binding

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<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD). Three major PCV2 genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) have been identified globally. Despite their worldwide distribution, the prevalence and genetic evolution of PCV2 in Belgium has not previously been determined. In this study, 319 samples from animals suffering from diseases likely to be associated with PCV2 were collected from 2009 to 2018 and analysed by virus titration. The overall prevalence of PCV2 in PCVAD-suspected cases was 15.7 per cent (50/319). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that at least three genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) circulated in Belgium from 2009 till 2018, and that PCV2 evolved from PCV2a to PCV2b and from PCV2d-1 to PCV2d-2. Sequence comparison among the forty-three PCV2 isolates showed that they had 89.7–100 per cent nucleotide-sequence and 88.5–100 per cent amino-acid-sequence identities. Three amino acid sites were under positive selection. Three-dimensional analysis of genotype-specific amino acids revealed that most of the mutations were on the outside of the cap protein with a few conserved mutations present on the inner side. Mutations toward more basic amino acids were found on the upper and tail parts of two connecting capsid proteins which form one big contact region, most probably involved in receptor binding. The lower part was relatively conserved. This polarity change together with the formation of an extruding part drive the virus to a more efficient GAG receptor binding. Taken together, these results showed a genotype shift from PCV2a to PCV2b and later on from PCV2d-1 to PCV2d-2, and a PCV2 evolution toward a better receptor binding capacity.</jats:p>

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Chicago
Wei, Ruifang, Jiexiong Xie, Sebastiaan Theuns, and Hans J Nauwynck. 2019. “Changes on the Viral Capsid Surface During the Evolution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 May Lead to a Better Receptor Binding.” Virus Evolution.
APA
Wei, R., Xie, J., Theuns, S., & Nauwynck, H. J. (2019). Changes on the viral capsid surface during the evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 may lead to a better receptor binding. Virus Evolution.
Vancouver
1.
Wei R, Xie J, Theuns S, Nauwynck HJ. Changes on the viral capsid surface during the evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 may lead to a better receptor binding. Virus Evolution. 2019;
MLA
Wei, Ruifang et al. “Changes on the Viral Capsid Surface During the Evolution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 May Lead to a Better Receptor Binding.” Virus Evolution (2019): n. pag. Print.
@article{8625034,
  abstract     = {<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title>
               <jats:p>Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD). Three major PCV2 genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) have been identified globally. Despite their worldwide distribution, the prevalence and genetic evolution of PCV2 in Belgium has not previously been determined. In this study, 319 samples from animals suffering from diseases likely to be associated with PCV2 were collected from 2009 to 2018 and analysed by virus titration. The overall prevalence of PCV2 in PCVAD-suspected cases was 15.7 per cent (50/319). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that at least three genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) circulated in Belgium from 2009 till 2018, and that PCV2 evolved from PCV2a to PCV2b and from PCV2d-1 to PCV2d-2. Sequence comparison among the forty-three PCV2 isolates showed that they had 89.7–100 per cent nucleotide-sequence and 88.5–100 per cent amino-acid-sequence identities. Three amino acid sites were under positive selection. Three-dimensional analysis of genotype-specific amino acids revealed that most of the mutations were on the outside of the cap protein with a few conserved mutations present on the inner side. Mutations toward more basic amino acids were found on the upper and tail parts of two connecting capsid proteins which form one big contact region, most probably involved in receptor binding. The lower part was relatively conserved. This polarity change together with the formation of an extruding part drive the virus to a more efficient GAG receptor binding. Taken together, these results showed a genotype shift from PCV2a to PCV2b and later on from PCV2d-1 to PCV2d-2, and a PCV2 evolution toward a better receptor binding capacity.</jats:p>},
  author       = {Wei, Ruifang and Xie, Jiexiong and Theuns, Sebastiaan and Nauwynck, Hans J},
  issn         = {2057-1577},
  journal      = {Virus Evolution},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Changes on the viral capsid surface during the evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from 2009 till 2018 may lead to a better receptor binding},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vez026},
  year         = {2019},
}

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