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Regression in autism spectrum disorder : a critical overview of retrospective findings and recommendations for future research

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Abstract
Historically, two onset patterns in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were described: early onset of symptoms and regression in which one-third appear to show a loss of previously established skills in the second year of life. Since this phenomenon could represent a distinct ASD subtype and provide more insight into the etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis, many studies have compared these two groups. The present review discusses definitions, etiology, and methods used in research with a retrospective design and provides an overview of the results on early development and outcomes. However, retrospective research has not provided clear answers on regression as a distinct subtype of ASD and the historic division between early onset and regression does not seem to fit the empirical findings. Based on inconsistent results, future research on onset patterns in ASD needs to be more systematic on the definitions and methods used. Several recommendations to enhance the reliability of future retrospective results are discussed. The combination of a categorical and dimensional approach provides a new interesting framework.
Keywords
DEVELOPMENTAL REGRESSION, ONSET PATTERNS, LANGUAGE REGRESSION, CLINICAL, CHARACTERISTICS, SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, YOUNG-CHILDREN, SYMPTOMS, INFANTS, AGE, DIAGNOSIS

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MLA
Boterberg, Sofie et al. “Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Critical Overview of Retrospective Findings and Recommendations for Future Research.” NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS 102 (2019): 24–55. Print.
APA
Boterberg, S., Charman, T., Marschik, P. B., Bolte, S., & Roeyers, H. (2019). Regression in autism spectrum disorder : a critical overview of retrospective findings and recommendations for future research. NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS, 102, 24–55.
Chicago author-date
Boterberg, Sofie, Tony Charman, Peter B. Marschik, Sven Bolte, and Herbert Roeyers. 2019. “Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Critical Overview of Retrospective Findings and Recommendations for Future Research.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 102: 24–55.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Boterberg, Sofie, Tony Charman, Peter B. Marschik, Sven Bolte, and Herbert Roeyers. 2019. “Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Critical Overview of Retrospective Findings and Recommendations for Future Research.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 102: 24–55.
Vancouver
1.
Boterberg S, Charman T, Marschik PB, Bolte S, Roeyers H. Regression in autism spectrum disorder : a critical overview of retrospective findings and recommendations for future research. NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS. Oxford: Elsevier; 2019;102:24–55.
IEEE
[1]
S. Boterberg, T. Charman, P. B. Marschik, S. Bolte, and H. Roeyers, “Regression in autism spectrum disorder : a critical overview of retrospective findings and recommendations for future research,” NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS, vol. 102, pp. 24–55, 2019.
@article{8624548,
  abstract     = {Historically, two onset patterns in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were described: early onset of symptoms and regression in which one-third appear to show a loss of previously established skills in the second year of life. Since this phenomenon could represent a distinct ASD subtype and provide more insight into the etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis, many studies have compared these two groups. The present review discusses definitions, etiology, and methods used in research with a retrospective design and provides an overview of the results on early development and outcomes. However, retrospective research has not provided clear answers on regression as a distinct subtype of ASD and the historic division between early onset and regression does not seem to fit the empirical findings. Based on inconsistent results, future research on onset patterns in ASD needs to be more systematic on the definitions and methods used. Several recommendations to enhance the reliability of future retrospective results are discussed. The combination of a categorical and dimensional approach provides a new interesting framework.},
  author       = {Boterberg, Sofie and Charman, Tony and Marschik, Peter B. and Bolte, Sven and Roeyers, Herbert},
  issn         = {0149-7634},
  journal      = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
  keywords     = {DEVELOPMENTAL REGRESSION,ONSET PATTERNS,LANGUAGE REGRESSION,CLINICAL,CHARACTERISTICS,SOCIAL COMMUNICATION,YOUNG-CHILDREN,SYMPTOMS,INFANTS,AGE,DIAGNOSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {24--55},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  title        = {Regression in autism spectrum disorder : a critical overview of retrospective findings and recommendations for future research},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.03.013},
  volume       = {102},
  year         = {2019},
}

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