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Efficacy of a self-regulation-based electronic and mobile health intervention targeting an active lifestyle in adults having type 2 diabetes and in adults aged 50 years or older : two randomized controlled trials

Louise Poppe (UGent) , Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij (UGent) , Maïté Verloigne (UGent) , Samiah Shadid (UGent) , Jelle Van Cauwenberg (UGent) , Sofie Compernolle (UGent) and Geert Crombez (UGent)
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Organization
Abstract
Background: Adopting an active lifestyle plays a key role in the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Web-based interventions are able to alter health behaviors and show stronger effects when they are informed by a behavior change theory. MyPlan 2.0 is a fully automated electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) intervention targeting physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Objective: This study aimed to test the short-term effect of MyPlan 2.0 in altering levels of PA and SB and in changing personal determinants of behavior in adults with T2DM and in adults aged >= 50 years. Methods: The study comprised two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with an identical design. RCT 1 was conducted with adults with T2DM. RCT 2 was performed in adults aged >= 50 years. Data were collected via face-to-face assessments. The participants decided either to increase their level of PA or to decrease their level of SB. The participants were randomly allocated with a 2:1 ratio to the intervention group or the waiting-list control group. They were not blinded for their group allocation. The participants in the intervention group were instructed to go through MyPlan 2.0, comprising 5 sessions with an interval of 1 week between each session. The primary outcomes were objectively measured and self-reported PA (ie, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, total PA, number of steps, and domain-specific [eg, transport-related] PA) and SB (ie, sitting time, number of breaks from sitting time, and length of sitting bouts). Secondary outcomes were self-reported behavioral determinants for PA and SB (eg, self-efficacy). Separate linear mixed models were performed to analyze the effects of MyPlan 2.0 in the two samples. Results: In RCT 1 (n=54), the PA intervention group showed, in contrast to the control group, a decrease in self-reported time spent sitting (P=.09) and an increase in accelerometer-measured moderate (P=.05) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.049). The SB intervention group displayed an increase in accelerometer-assessed breaks from sedentary time in comparison with the control group (P=.005). A total of 14 participants of RCT 1 dropped out. In RCT 2 (n=63), the PA intervention group showed an increase for self-reported total PA in comparison with the control group (P=.003). Furthermore, in contrast to the control group, the SB intervention group decreased their self-reported time spent sitting (P=.08) and increased their accelerometer-assessed moderate (P=.06) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.07). A total of 8 participants of RCT 2 dropped out. Conclusions: For both the samples, the HAPA based eHealth and mHealth intervention, MyPlan 2.0, was able to improve only some of the primary outcomes.
Keywords
eHealth, mHealth, physical activity, type 2 diabetes, self-regulation, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE, BEHAVIOR-CHANGE TECHNIQUES, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, EHEALTH, ILLNESS, PEOPLE, STATE

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MLA
Poppe, Louise, et al. “Efficacy of a Self-Regulation-Based Electronic and Mobile Health Intervention Targeting an Active Lifestyle in Adults Having Type 2 Diabetes and in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older : Two Randomized Controlled Trials.” JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 8, 2019.
APA
Poppe, L., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Verloigne, M., Shadid, S., Van Cauwenberg, J., Compernolle, S., & Crombez, G. (2019). Efficacy of a self-regulation-based electronic and mobile health intervention targeting an active lifestyle in adults having type 2 diabetes and in adults aged 50 years or older : two randomized controlled trials. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, 21(8).
Chicago author-date
Poppe, Louise, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Maïté Verloigne, Samiah Shadid, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Sofie Compernolle, and Geert Crombez. 2019. “Efficacy of a Self-Regulation-Based Electronic and Mobile Health Intervention Targeting an Active Lifestyle in Adults Having Type 2 Diabetes and in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older : Two Randomized Controlled Trials.” JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH 21 (8).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Poppe, Louise, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Maïté Verloigne, Samiah Shadid, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Sofie Compernolle, and Geert Crombez. 2019. “Efficacy of a Self-Regulation-Based Electronic and Mobile Health Intervention Targeting an Active Lifestyle in Adults Having Type 2 Diabetes and in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older : Two Randomized Controlled Trials.” JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH 21 (8).
Vancouver
1.
Poppe L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Verloigne M, Shadid S, Van Cauwenberg J, Compernolle S, et al. Efficacy of a self-regulation-based electronic and mobile health intervention targeting an active lifestyle in adults having type 2 diabetes and in adults aged 50 years or older : two randomized controlled trials. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH. 2019;21(8).
IEEE
[1]
L. Poppe et al., “Efficacy of a self-regulation-based electronic and mobile health intervention targeting an active lifestyle in adults having type 2 diabetes and in adults aged 50 years or older : two randomized controlled trials,” JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, vol. 21, no. 8, 2019.
@article{8624242,
  abstract     = {Background: Adopting an active lifestyle plays a key role in the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Web-based interventions are able to alter health behaviors and show stronger effects when they are informed by a behavior change theory. MyPlan 2.0 is a fully automated electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) intervention targeting physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). 
Objective: This study aimed to test the short-term effect of MyPlan 2.0 in altering levels of PA and SB and in changing personal determinants of behavior in adults with T2DM and in adults aged >= 50 years. 
Methods: The study comprised two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with an identical design. RCT 1 was conducted with adults with T2DM. RCT 2 was performed in adults aged >= 50 years. Data were collected via face-to-face assessments. The participants decided either to increase their level of PA or to decrease their level of SB. The participants were randomly allocated with a 2:1 ratio to the intervention group or the waiting-list control group. They were not blinded for their group allocation. The participants in the intervention group were instructed to go through MyPlan 2.0, comprising 5 sessions with an interval of 1 week between each session. The primary outcomes were objectively measured and self-reported PA (ie, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, total PA, number of steps, and domain-specific [eg, transport-related] PA) and SB (ie, sitting time, number of breaks from sitting time, and length of sitting bouts). Secondary outcomes were self-reported behavioral determinants for PA and SB (eg, self-efficacy). Separate linear mixed models were performed to analyze the effects of MyPlan 2.0 in the two samples. 
Results: In RCT 1 (n=54), the PA intervention group showed, in contrast to the control group, a decrease in self-reported time spent sitting (P=.09) and an increase in accelerometer-measured moderate (P=.05) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.049). The SB intervention group displayed an increase in accelerometer-assessed breaks from sedentary time in comparison with the control group (P=.005). A total of 14 participants of RCT 1 dropped out. In RCT 2 (n=63), the PA intervention group showed an increase for self-reported total PA in comparison with the control group (P=.003). Furthermore, in contrast to the control group, the SB intervention group decreased their self-reported time spent sitting (P=.08) and increased their accelerometer-assessed moderate (P=.06) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.07). A total of 8 participants of RCT 2 dropped out. 
Conclusions: For both the samples, the HAPA based eHealth and mHealth intervention, MyPlan 2.0, was able to improve only some of the primary outcomes.},
  articleno    = {e13363},
  author       = {Poppe, Louise and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Verloigne, Maïté and Shadid, Samiah and Van Cauwenberg, Jelle and Compernolle, Sofie and Crombez, Geert},
  issn         = {1438-8871},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {eHealth,mHealth,physical activity,type 2 diabetes,self-regulation,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE,BEHAVIOR-CHANGE TECHNIQUES,SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR,EHEALTH,ILLNESS,PEOPLE,STATE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  title        = {Efficacy of a self-regulation-based electronic and mobile health intervention targeting an active lifestyle in adults having type 2 diabetes and in adults aged 50 years or older : two randomized controlled trials},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13363},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2019},
}

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