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Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium core proteomes reveal differentially expressed proteins linked to the cell surface and pathogenicity

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Abstract
Background: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contains more than 2,600 serovars of which four are of major medical relevance for humans. While the typhoidal serovars (Typhi and Paratyphi A) are human-restricted and cause enteric fever, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) have a broad host range and predominantly cause gastroenteritis. Methodology/Principle findings: We compared the core proteomes of Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis using contemporary proteomics. For each serovar, five clinical isolates (covering different geographical origins) and one reference strain were grown in vitro to the exponential phase. Levels of orthologous proteins quantified in all four serovars and within the typhoidal and non-typhoidal groups were compared and subjected to gene ontology term enrichment and inferred regulatory interactions. Differential expression of the core proteomes of the typhoidal serovars appears mainly related to cell surface components and, for the non-typhoidal serovars, to pathogenicity. Conclusions/Significance: Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression. Author summary: With an estimated 20 million typhoid cases and an even higher number of non-typhoid cases the health burden caused by salmonellosis is huge. Salmonellosis is caused by the bacterial species Salmonella enterica and over 2500 different serovars exist, of which four are of major medical relevance for humans: Typhi and Paratyphi A cause typhoid fever while Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the dominant cause of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is expressed by a genome and the core proteome are all orthologous proteins detected in a given sample set. In this study we have investigated differential expression of the core proteomes of the Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis, as well as the regulating molecules. Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between the serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings in proteome-wide expression may guide the development of novel diagnostics and vaccines for Salmonella, as well as understanding of disease.
Keywords
ENTERICA SEROVAR TYPHIMURIUM, COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE, VIRULENCE FACTORS, GLOBAL BURDEN, IDENTIFICATION, RATES

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MLA
Saleh, Sara, et al. “Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium Core Proteomes Reveal Differentially Expressed Proteins Linked to the Cell Surface and Pathogenicity.” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, edited by Travis J. Bourret, vol. 13, no. 5, 2019.
APA
Saleh, S., Van Puyvelde, S., Staes, A., Timmerman, E., Barbé, B., Jacobs, J., … Deborggraeve, S. (2019). Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium core proteomes reveal differentially expressed proteins linked to the cell surface and pathogenicity. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 13(5).
Chicago author-date
Saleh, Sara, Sandra Van Puyvelde, An Staes, Evy Timmerman, Barbara Barbé, Jan Jacobs, Kris Gevaert, and Stijn Deborggraeve. 2019. “Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium Core Proteomes Reveal Differentially Expressed Proteins Linked to the Cell Surface and Pathogenicity.” Edited by Travis J. Bourret. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES 13 (5).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Saleh, Sara, Sandra Van Puyvelde, An Staes, Evy Timmerman, Barbara Barbé, Jan Jacobs, Kris Gevaert, and Stijn Deborggraeve. 2019. “Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium Core Proteomes Reveal Differentially Expressed Proteins Linked to the Cell Surface and Pathogenicity.” Ed by. Travis J. Bourret. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES 13 (5).
Vancouver
1.
Saleh S, Van Puyvelde S, Staes A, Timmerman E, Barbé B, Jacobs J, et al. Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium core proteomes reveal differentially expressed proteins linked to the cell surface and pathogenicity. Bourret TJ, editor. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. 2019;13(5).
IEEE
[1]
S. Saleh et al., “Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium core proteomes reveal differentially expressed proteins linked to the cell surface and pathogenicity,” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, vol. 13, no. 5, 2019.
@article{8623900,
  abstract     = {{Background: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contains more than 2,600 serovars of which four are of major medical relevance for humans. While the typhoidal serovars (Typhi and Paratyphi A) are human-restricted and cause enteric fever, non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) have a broad host range and predominantly cause gastroenteritis. 
Methodology/Principle findings: We compared the core proteomes of Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis using contemporary proteomics. For each serovar, five clinical isolates (covering different geographical origins) and one reference strain were grown in vitro to the exponential phase. Levels of orthologous proteins quantified in all four serovars and within the typhoidal and non-typhoidal groups were compared and subjected to gene ontology term enrichment and inferred regulatory interactions. Differential expression of the core proteomes of the typhoidal serovars appears mainly related to cell surface components and, for the non-typhoidal serovars, to pathogenicity. 
Conclusions/Significance: Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression. 
Author summary: With an estimated 20 million typhoid cases and an even higher number of non-typhoid cases the health burden caused by salmonellosis is huge. Salmonellosis is caused by the bacterial species Salmonella enterica and over 2500 different serovars exist, of which four are of major medical relevance for humans: Typhi and Paratyphi A cause typhoid fever while Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the dominant cause of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is expressed by a genome and the core proteome are all orthologous proteins detected in a given sample set. In this study we have investigated differential expression of the core proteomes of the Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium and Enteritidis, as well as the regulating molecules. Our comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins between the serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings in proteome-wide expression may guide the development of novel diagnostics and vaccines for Salmonella, as well as understanding of disease.}},
  articleno    = {{e0007416}},
  author       = {{Saleh, Sara and Van Puyvelde, Sandra and Staes, An and Timmerman, Evy and Barbé, Barbara and Jacobs, Jan and Gevaert, Kris and Deborggraeve, Stijn}},
  editor       = {{Bourret, Travis J.}},
  issn         = {{1935-2735}},
  journal      = {{PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES}},
  keywords     = {{ENTERICA SEROVAR TYPHIMURIUM,COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE,VIRULENCE FACTORS,GLOBAL BURDEN,IDENTIFICATION,RATES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Salmonella Typhi, Paratyphi A, Enteritidis and Typhimurium core proteomes reveal differentially expressed proteins linked to the cell surface and pathogenicity}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007416}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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