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Water balance components of the potential agricultural grabens along the Rift Valley in northern Ethiopia

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Abstract
Region: Ethiopia's Rift Valley. Focus: matching agricultural water demand and supply is a growing policy challenge in drylands. We investigated the water balance components in Raya (3507 km(2)) and Ashenge (80.5 km(2)) grabens. The rainfall depth, river discharge, abstraction, climate and soil data (2015-2017) were used to address the research question. New hydrological insights: the average annual rainfall of the graben's escarpment and its bottom was 806 +/- 162 and 508 +/- 110 mm, respectively. Heavy rains produce floods up to 732 m(3) s(-1) in the rivers that flow into the Raya graben. Moreover, greater runoff and river discharges volumes were recorded at the graben escarpments than at the graben bottom outlets (p < 0.001) due to the greater contributing area (p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.98) and headwater elevation (p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.98). About 24% of the water entering both graben bottoms comes from the runoff from the adjacent slopes, and about 40% of the runoff reaching the Raya graben bottom flowed out at the outlet. About 76% and 77.5% of the annual rainfall was lost through evapotranspiration from the Raya and Ashenge grabens, respectively. So about 16% and 33% of the average annual inflows infiltrated into the sediments in the Raya and Ashenge grabens, respectively. These insights provided by this study into the water balance in grabens along the Rift Valley can be used to help achieve sustainable agricultural development.
Keywords
Erratic rainfall, Flash flood, Evapotranspiration, Recharge, Rift Valley, Ethiopia, SPATIOTEMPORAL RAINFALL VARIABILITY, BLUE NILE BASIN, LAND-USE, COVER CHANGES, DISCHARGE, RUNOFF, CATCHMENTS, RAYA, DETERMINANTS, PERSPECTIVES

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MLA
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza, et al. “Water Balance Components of the Potential Agricultural Grabens along the Rift Valley in Northern Ethiopia.” JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, vol. 24, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100616.
APA
Gebregergs, H. M., Frankl, A., Demissie, B., Poesen, J., Zenebe, A., Gebresamuel, G., … Nyssen, J. (2019). Water balance components of the potential agricultural grabens along the Rift Valley in northern Ethiopia. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, 24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100616
Chicago author-date
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza, Amaury Frankl, Biadgilgn Demissie, Jean Poesen, Amanuel Zenebe, Girmay Gebresamuel, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes Asfaha, et al. 2019. “Water Balance Components of the Potential Agricultural Grabens along the Rift Valley in Northern Ethiopia.” JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES 24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100616.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza, Amaury Frankl, Biadgilgn Demissie, Jean Poesen, Amanuel Zenebe, Girmay Gebresamuel, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes Asfaha, Sofie Annys, Veerle Van Eetvelde, Miro Jacob, Jozef Deckers, Dirk Raes, and Jan Nyssen. 2019. “Water Balance Components of the Potential Agricultural Grabens along the Rift Valley in Northern Ethiopia.” JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES 24. doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100616.
Vancouver
1.
Gebregergs HM, Frankl A, Demissie B, Poesen J, Zenebe A, Gebresamuel G, et al. Water balance components of the potential agricultural grabens along the Rift Valley in northern Ethiopia. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES. 2019;24.
IEEE
[1]
H. M. Gebregergs et al., “Water balance components of the potential agricultural grabens along the Rift Valley in northern Ethiopia,” JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, vol. 24, 2019.
@article{8623592,
  abstract     = {{Region: Ethiopia's Rift Valley. 
Focus: matching agricultural water demand and supply is a growing policy challenge in drylands. We investigated the water balance components in Raya (3507 km(2)) and Ashenge (80.5 km(2)) grabens. The rainfall depth, river discharge, abstraction, climate and soil data (2015-2017) were used to address the research question. 
New hydrological insights: the average annual rainfall of the graben's escarpment and its bottom was 806 +/- 162 and 508 +/- 110 mm, respectively. Heavy rains produce floods up to 732 m(3) s(-1) in the rivers that flow into the Raya graben. Moreover, greater runoff and river discharges volumes were recorded at the graben escarpments than at the graben bottom outlets (p < 0.001) due to the greater contributing area (p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.98) and headwater elevation (p < 0.001, R-2 = 0.98). About 24% of the water entering both graben bottoms comes from the runoff from the adjacent slopes, and about 40% of the runoff reaching the Raya graben bottom flowed out at the outlet. About 76% and 77.5% of the annual rainfall was lost through evapotranspiration from the Raya and Ashenge grabens, respectively. So about 16% and 33% of the average annual inflows infiltrated into the sediments in the Raya and Ashenge grabens, respectively. These insights provided by this study into the water balance in grabens along the Rift Valley can be used to help achieve sustainable agricultural development.}},
  articleno    = {{100616}},
  author       = {{Gebregergs, Hailemariam Meaza and Frankl, Amaury and Demissie, Biadgilgn and Poesen, Jean and Zenebe, Amanuel and Gebresamuel, Girmay and Asfaha, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes and Annys, Sofie and Van Eetvelde, Veerle and Jacob, Miro and Deckers, Jozef and Raes, Dirk and Nyssen, Jan}},
  issn         = {{2214-5818}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES}},
  keywords     = {{Erratic rainfall,Flash flood,Evapotranspiration,Recharge,Rift Valley,Ethiopia,SPATIOTEMPORAL RAINFALL VARIABILITY,BLUE NILE BASIN,LAND-USE,COVER CHANGES,DISCHARGE,RUNOFF,CATCHMENTS,RAYA,DETERMINANTS,PERSPECTIVES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Water balance components of the potential agricultural grabens along the Rift Valley in northern Ethiopia}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100616}},
  volume       = {{24}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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