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Development of antiseptic adaptation and cross-adapatation in selected oral pathogens in vitro

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Abstract
There is evidence that pathogenic bacteria can adapt to antiseptics upon repeated exposure. More alarming is the concomitant increase in antibiotic resistance that has been described for some pathogens. Unfortunately, effects of adaptation and cross-adaptation are hardly known for oral pathogens, which are very frequently exposed to antiseptics. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the in vitro increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in oral pathogens after repeated exposure to chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride, to examine if (cross-)adaptation to antiseptics/antibiotics occurs, if (cross-)adaptation is reversible and what the potential underlying mechanisms are. When the pathogens were exposed to antiseptics, their MICs significantly increased. This increase was in general at least partially conserved after regrowth without antiseptics. Some of the adapted species also showed cross-adaptation, as shown by increased MICs of antibiotics and the other antiseptic. In most antiseptic-adapted bacteria, cell-surface hydrophobicity was increased and mass-spectrometry analysis revealed changes in expression of proteins involved in a wide range of functional domains. These in vitro data shows the adaptation and cross-adaptation of oral pathogens to antiseptics and antibiotics. This was related to changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and in expression of proteins involved in membrane transport, virulence, oxidative stress protection and metabolism.
Keywords
RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS, INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS, PORPHYROMONAS-GINGIVALIS, CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS, STREPTOCOCCUS-MUTANS, CHLORHEXIDINE GEL, BIOCIDES, STRAINS, SUSCEPTIBILITIES

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MLA
Verspecht, Tim et al. “Development of Antiseptic Adaptation and Cross-adapatation in Selected Oral Pathogens in Vitro.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 9 (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Verspecht, T., Herrero, E. R., Khodaparast, L., Khodaparast, L., Boon, N., Bernaerts, K., Quirynen, M., et al. (2019). Development of antiseptic adaptation and cross-adapatation in selected oral pathogens in vitro. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 9.
Chicago author-date
Verspecht, Tim, Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Ladan Khodaparast, Laleh Khodaparast, Nico Boon, Kristel Bernaerts, Marc Quirynen, and Wim Teughels. 2019. “Development of Antiseptic Adaptation and Cross-adapatation in Selected Oral Pathogens in Vitro.” Scientific Reports 9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Verspecht, Tim, Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Ladan Khodaparast, Laleh Khodaparast, Nico Boon, Kristel Bernaerts, Marc Quirynen, and Wim Teughels. 2019. “Development of Antiseptic Adaptation and Cross-adapatation in Selected Oral Pathogens in Vitro.” Scientific Reports 9.
Vancouver
1.
Verspecht T, Herrero ER, Khodaparast L, Khodaparast L, Boon N, Bernaerts K, et al. Development of antiseptic adaptation and cross-adapatation in selected oral pathogens in vitro. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2019;9.
IEEE
[1]
T. Verspecht et al., “Development of antiseptic adaptation and cross-adapatation in selected oral pathogens in vitro,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 9, 2019.
@article{8623453,
  abstract     = {There is evidence that pathogenic bacteria can adapt to antiseptics upon repeated exposure. More alarming is the concomitant increase in antibiotic resistance that has been described for some pathogens. Unfortunately, effects of adaptation and cross-adaptation are hardly known for oral pathogens, which are very frequently exposed to antiseptics. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the in vitro increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in oral pathogens after repeated exposure to chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride, to examine if (cross-)adaptation to antiseptics/antibiotics occurs, if (cross-)adaptation is reversible and what the potential underlying mechanisms are. When the pathogens were exposed to antiseptics, their MICs significantly increased. This increase was in general at least partially conserved after regrowth without antiseptics. Some of the adapted species also showed cross-adaptation, as shown by increased MICs of antibiotics and the other antiseptic. In most antiseptic-adapted bacteria, cell-surface hydrophobicity was increased and mass-spectrometry analysis revealed changes in expression of proteins involved in a wide range of functional domains. These in vitro data shows the adaptation and cross-adaptation of oral pathogens to antiseptics and antibiotics. This was related to changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and in expression of proteins involved in membrane transport, virulence, oxidative stress protection and metabolism.},
  articleno    = {8326},
  author       = {Verspecht, Tim and Herrero, Esteban Rodriguez and Khodaparast, Ladan and Khodaparast, Laleh and Boon, Nico and Bernaerts, Kristel and Quirynen, Marc and Teughels, Wim},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS,INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS,PORPHYROMONAS-GINGIVALIS,CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE,ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS,STREPTOCOCCUS-MUTANS,CHLORHEXIDINE GEL,BIOCIDES,STRAINS,SUSCEPTIBILITIES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Development of antiseptic adaptation and cross-adapatation in selected oral pathogens in vitro},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44822-y},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2019},
}

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