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Uncovering the origins of spiral structure by measuring radial variation in pattern speeds

(2009) ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 702(1). p.277-290
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Abstract
Current theories of spiral and bar structure predict a variety of pattern speed behaviors, calling for detailed, direct measurement of the radial variation of pattern speeds. Our recently developed Radial Tremaine-Weinberg (TWR) method allows this goal to be achieved for the first time. Here, we present TWR spiral pattern speed estimates for M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, and NGC 3344 in order to investigate whether spiral structure is steady or winding, whether spirals are described by multiple pattern speeds, and the relation between bar and spiral speeds. Where possible, we interpret our pattern speeds estimates according to the resonance radii associated with each (established with the disk angular rotation), and compare these to previous determinations. By analyzing the high-quality Hi and CO data cubes available for these galaxies, we show that it is possible to determine directly multiple pattern speeds within these systems, and hence identify the characteristic signatures of the processes that drive the spiral structure. Even this small sample of galaxies reveals a surprisingly complex taxonomy, with the first direct evidence for the presence of resonant coupling of multiple patterns found in some systems, and the measurement of a simple single-pattern speed in others. Overall, this study demonstrates that we are now in a position to uncover more of the apparently complex physics that lies behind spiral structure.
Keywords
TREMAINE-WEINBERG METHOD, LATE-TYPE GALAXIES, 38 BARRED GALAXIES, DARK-MATTER HALOS, STAR-FORMATION, DISK GALAXIES, DYNAMICAL FRICTION, MOLECULAR GAS, NEUTRAL HYDROGEN, GALACTIC DISK, galaxies: individual (M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, NGC 3344), galaxies:, kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure, methods: numerical

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Citation

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MLA
van der Wel, Sharon Meidt, et al. “Uncovering the Origins of Spiral Structure by Measuring Radial Variation in Pattern Speeds.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 702, no. 1, 2009, pp. 277–90.
APA
van der Wel, S. M., Rand, R. J., & Merrifield, M. R. (2009). Uncovering the origins of spiral structure by measuring radial variation in pattern speeds. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 702(1), 277–290.
Chicago author-date
Wel, Sharon Meidt van der, Richard J Rand, and Michael R Merrifield. 2009. “Uncovering the Origins of Spiral Structure by Measuring Radial Variation in Pattern Speeds.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 702 (1): 277–90.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van der Wel, Sharon Meidt, Richard J Rand, and Michael R Merrifield. 2009. “Uncovering the Origins of Spiral Structure by Measuring Radial Variation in Pattern Speeds.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 702 (1): 277–290.
Vancouver
1.
van der Wel SM, Rand RJ, Merrifield MR. Uncovering the origins of spiral structure by measuring radial variation in pattern speeds. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2009;702(1):277–90.
IEEE
[1]
S. M. van der Wel, R. J. Rand, and M. R. Merrifield, “Uncovering the origins of spiral structure by measuring radial variation in pattern speeds,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 702, no. 1, pp. 277–290, 2009.
@article{8622909,
  abstract     = {Current theories of spiral and bar structure predict a variety of pattern speed behaviors, calling for detailed, direct measurement of the radial variation of pattern speeds. Our recently developed Radial Tremaine-Weinberg (TWR) method allows this goal to be achieved for the first time. Here, we present TWR spiral pattern speed estimates for M101, IC 342, NGC 3938, and NGC 3344 in order to investigate whether spiral structure is steady or winding, whether spirals are described by multiple pattern speeds, and the relation between bar and spiral speeds. Where possible, we interpret our pattern speeds estimates according to the resonance radii associated with each (established with the disk angular rotation), and compare these to previous determinations. By analyzing the high-quality Hi and CO data cubes available for these galaxies, we show that it is possible to determine directly multiple pattern speeds within these systems, and hence identify the characteristic signatures of the processes that drive the spiral structure. Even this small sample of galaxies reveals a surprisingly complex taxonomy, with the first direct evidence for the presence of resonant coupling of multiple patterns found in some systems, and the measurement of a simple single-pattern speed in others. Overall, this study demonstrates that we are now in a position to uncover more of the apparently complex physics that lies behind spiral structure.},
  author       = {van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Rand, Richard J and Merrifield, Michael R},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {TREMAINE-WEINBERG METHOD,LATE-TYPE GALAXIES,38 BARRED GALAXIES,DARK-MATTER HALOS,STAR-FORMATION,DISK GALAXIES,DYNAMICAL FRICTION,MOLECULAR GAS,NEUTRAL HYDROGEN,GALACTIC DISK,galaxies: individual (M101,IC 342,NGC 3938,NGC 3344),galaxies:,kinematics and dynamics,galaxies: spiral,galaxies: structure,methods: numerical},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {277--290},
  title        = {Uncovering the origins of spiral structure by measuring radial variation in pattern speeds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/702/1/277},
  volume       = {702},
  year         = {2009},
}

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