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The displaced dusty interstellar medium of NGC 3077: tidal stripping in the M 81 triplet

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Abstract
We present the detection of extended (similar to 30 kpc(2)) dust emission in the tidal Hi arm near NGC 3077 (member of the M 81 triplet) using SPIRE on board Herschel. Dust emission in the tidal arm is typically detected where the Hi column densities are >10(21) cm(-2). The SPIRE band ratios show that the dust in the tidal arm is significantly colder (similar to 13 K) than in NGC 3077 itself (similar to 31 K), consistent with the lower radiation field in the tidal arm. The total dust mass in the tidal arm is similar to 1.8 x 10(6) M-circle dot (assuming beta = 2), i.e., substantially larger than the dust mass associated with NGC 3077 (similar to 2 x 10(5) M-circle dot). Where dust is detected, the dust-to-gas ratio is (6 +/- 3) x 10(-3), consistent within the uncertainties with what is found in NGC 3077 and nearby spiral galaxies with Galactic metallicities. The faint H II regions in the tidal arm cannot be responsible for the detected enriched material and are not the main source of the dust heating in the tidal arm. We conclude that the interstellar medium (atomic Hi, molecules, and dust) in this tidal feature was pre-enriched and stripped off NGC 3077 during its recent interaction (similar to 3 x 10(8) yr ago) with M 82 and M 81. This implies that interaction can efficiently remove heavy elements and enriched material (dust and molecular gas) from galaxies. As interactions were more frequent at large look-back times, it is conceivable that they could substantially contribute (along with galactic outflows) to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium.
Keywords
DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES, STAR-FORMATION, MOLECULAR GAS, M81 GROUP, INFRARED-EMISSION, ATOMIC-HYDROGEN, H-ALPHA, NGC-3077, GARLAND, ARMS, galaxies: individual (NGC 3077, Garland), galaxies: interactions, galaxies: ISM, infrared: ISM, ISM: general

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MLA
Walter, F., et al. “The Displaced Dusty Interstellar Medium of NGC 3077: Tidal Stripping in the M 81 Triplet.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, vol. 726, no. 1, 2011.
APA
Walter, F., Sandstrom, K., Aniano, G., Calzetti, D., Croxall, K., Dale, D., … Zibetti, S. (2011). The displaced dusty interstellar medium of NGC 3077: tidal stripping in the M 81 triplet. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 726(1).
Chicago author-date
Walter, F, K Sandstrom, G Aniano, D Calzetti, K Croxall, DA Dale, BT Draine, et al. 2011. “The Displaced Dusty Interstellar Medium of NGC 3077: Tidal Stripping in the M 81 Triplet.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 726 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Walter, F, K Sandstrom, G Aniano, D Calzetti, K Croxall, DA Dale, BT Draine, C Engelbracht, J Hinz, RC Kennicutt, M Wolfire, L Armus, P Beirao, AD Bolatto, B Brandl, A Crocker, M Galametz, B Groves, C-N Hao, G Helou, L Hunt, J Koda, O Krause, A Leroy, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, EJ Murphy, N Rahman, H-W Rix, H Roussel, M Sauvage, E Schinnerer, R Skibba, JD Smith, CD Wilson, and S Zibetti. 2011. “The Displaced Dusty Interstellar Medium of NGC 3077: Tidal Stripping in the M 81 Triplet.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 726 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Walter F, Sandstrom K, Aniano G, Calzetti D, Croxall K, Dale D, et al. The displaced dusty interstellar medium of NGC 3077: tidal stripping in the M 81 triplet. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS. 2011;726(1).
IEEE
[1]
F. Walter et al., “The displaced dusty interstellar medium of NGC 3077: tidal stripping in the M 81 triplet,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, vol. 726, no. 1, 2011.
@article{8622880,
  abstract     = {We present the detection of extended (similar to 30 kpc(2)) dust emission in the tidal Hi arm near NGC 3077 (member of the M 81 triplet) using SPIRE on board Herschel. Dust emission in the tidal arm is typically detected where the Hi column densities are >10(21) cm(-2). The SPIRE band ratios show that the dust in the tidal arm is significantly colder (similar to 13 K) than in NGC 3077 itself (similar to 31 K), consistent with the lower radiation field in the tidal arm. The total dust mass in the tidal arm is similar to 1.8 x 10(6) M-circle dot (assuming beta = 2), i.e., substantially larger than the dust mass associated with NGC 3077 (similar to 2 x 10(5) M-circle dot). Where dust is detected, the dust-to-gas ratio is (6 +/- 3) x 10(-3), consistent within the uncertainties with what is found in NGC 3077 and nearby spiral galaxies with Galactic metallicities. The faint H II regions in the tidal arm cannot be responsible for the detected enriched material and are not the main source of the dust heating in the tidal arm. We conclude that the interstellar medium (atomic Hi, molecules, and dust) in this tidal feature was pre-enriched and stripped off NGC 3077 during its recent interaction (similar to 3 x 10(8) yr ago) with M 82 and M 81. This implies that interaction can efficiently remove heavy elements and enriched material (dust and molecular gas) from galaxies. As interactions were more frequent at large look-back times, it is conceivable that they could substantially contribute (along with galactic outflows) to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium.},
  articleno    = {L11},
  author       = {Walter, F and Sandstrom, K and Aniano, G and Calzetti, D and Croxall, K and Dale, DA and Draine, BT and Engelbracht, C and Hinz, J and Kennicutt, RC and Wolfire, M and Armus, L and Beirao, P and Bolatto, AD and Brandl, B and Crocker, A and Galametz, M and Groves, B and Hao, C-N and Helou, G and Hunt, L and Koda, J and Krause, O and Leroy, A and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Murphy, EJ and Rahman, N and Rix, H-W and Roussel, H and Sauvage, M and Schinnerer, E and Skibba, R and Smith, JD and Wilson, CD and Zibetti, S},
  issn         = {2041-8205},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS},
  keywords     = {DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES,STAR-FORMATION,MOLECULAR GAS,M81 GROUP,INFRARED-EMISSION,ATOMIC-HYDROGEN,H-ALPHA,NGC-3077,GARLAND,ARMS,galaxies: individual (NGC 3077,Garland),galaxies: interactions,galaxies: ISM,infrared: ISM,ISM: general},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {The displaced dusty interstellar medium of NGC 3077: tidal stripping in the M 81 triplet},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/726/1/L11},
  volume       = {726},
  year         = {2011},
}

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