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Grand design and flocculent spirals in the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G)

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Abstract
Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S(4)G) were measured at 3.6 mu m, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early-type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.
Keywords
INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY, DUST-PENETRATED CLASSIFICATION, BARRED, GALAXIES, BAND OBSERVATIONS, GRAVITATIONAL TORQUES, DRIVING MECHANISMS, OPTICAL TRACERS, WAVE RESONANCES, NEARBY GALAXIES, PATTERN SPEEDS, galaxies: photometry, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure, infrared:, galaxies

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MLA
Elmegreen, Debra Meloy, et al. “Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 737, no. 1, 2011.
APA
Elmegreen, D. M., Elmegreen, B. G., Yau, A., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Buta, R. J., … Erroz Ferrer, S. (2011). Grand design and flocculent spirals in the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G). ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 737(1).
Chicago author-date
Elmegreen, Debra Meloy, Bruce G Elmegreen, Andrew Yau, E Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Ronald J Buta, George Helou, et al. 2011. “Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 737 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Elmegreen, Debra Meloy, Bruce G Elmegreen, Andrew Yau, E Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Ronald J Buta, George Helou, Luis C Ho, Dimitri A Gadotti, Johan H Knapen, Eija Laurikainen, Barry F Madore, Karen L Masters, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Karin Menendez-Delmestre, Michael W Regan, Heikki Salo, Kartik Sheth, Dennis Zaritsky, Manuel Aravena, Ramin Skibba, Joannah L Hinz, Jarkko Laine, Armando Gil de Paz, Juan-Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Mark Seibert, Trisha Mizusawa, Taehyun Kim, and Santiago Erroz Ferrer. 2011. “Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 737 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Elmegreen DM, Elmegreen BG, Yau A, Athanassoula E, Bosma A, Buta RJ, et al. Grand design and flocculent spirals in the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G). ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2011;737(1).
IEEE
[1]
D. M. Elmegreen et al., “Grand design and flocculent spirals in the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G),” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 737, no. 1, 2011.
@article{8622875,
  abstract     = {Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S(4)G) were measured at 3.6 mu m, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early-type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.},
  articleno    = {32},
  author       = {Elmegreen, Debra Meloy and Elmegreen, Bruce G and Yau, Andrew and Athanassoula, E and Bosma, Albert and Buta, Ronald J and Helou, George and Ho, Luis C and Gadotti, Dimitri A and Knapen, Johan H and Laurikainen, Eija and Madore, Barry F and Masters, Karen L and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Menendez-Delmestre, Karin and Regan, Michael W and Salo, Heikki and Sheth, Kartik and Zaritsky, Dennis and Aravena, Manuel and Skibba, Ramin and Hinz, Joannah L and Laine, Jarkko and Gil de Paz, Armando and Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos and Seibert, Mark and Mizusawa, Trisha and Kim, Taehyun and Erroz Ferrer, Santiago},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY,DUST-PENETRATED CLASSIFICATION,BARRED,GALAXIES,BAND OBSERVATIONS,GRAVITATIONAL TORQUES,DRIVING MECHANISMS,OPTICAL TRACERS,WAVE RESONANCES,NEARBY GALAXIES,PATTERN SPEEDS,galaxies: photometry,galaxies: spiral,galaxies: structure,infrared:,galaxies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Grand design and flocculent spirals in the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/737/1/32},
  volume       = {737},
  year         = {2011},
}

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