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A study of heating and cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS

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Abstract
NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [CII]158 mu m and [OI]63 mu m lines and mid-infrared H-2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158 mu m+[OI]63 mu m)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 mu m PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158 mu m/PAH(5.5-14 mu m) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158 mu m and [OI]63 mu m emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G(0) similar to 10(2.3) and n(H) similar to 10(3.5) cm(-3) in the ring. For these values of G(0) and n(H), PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H-2 emission. Much of the H-2 emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.
Keywords
FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY, STAR-FORMING, GALAXIES, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, C-II, PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS, MOLECULAR-HYDROGEN, TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS, SEYFERT-GALAXIES, IRON PROJECT, galaxies: individual (NGC 1097), galaxies: ISM, galaxies: starburst, infrared: galaxies

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MLA
Beirao, P., et al. “A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 751, no. 2, 2012.
APA
Beirao, P., Armus, L., Helou, G., Appleton, P., Smith, J.-D., Croxall, K., … Warren, B. (2012). A study of heating and cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 751(2).
Chicago author-date
Beirao, P, L Armus, G Helou, PN Appleton, J-DT Smith, KV Croxall, EJ Murphy, et al. 2012. “A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 751 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Beirao, P, L Armus, G Helou, PN Appleton, J-DT Smith, KV Croxall, EJ Murphy, DA Dale, BT Draine, MG Wolfire, KM Sandstrom, G Aniano, AD Bolatto, B Groves, BR Brandl, E Schinnerer, AF Crocker, JL Hinz, H-W Rix, RC Kennicutt, D Calzetti, A Gil de Paz, G Dumas, M Galametz, KD Gordon, C-N Hao, B Johnson, J Koda, O Krause, T van der Laan, AK Leroy, Y Li, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, JD Meyer, N Rahman, H Roussel, M Sauvage, S Srinivasan, L Vigroux, F Walter, and BE Warren. 2012. “A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 751 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Beirao P, Armus L, Helou G, Appleton P, Smith J-D, Croxall K, et al. A study of heating and cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2012;751(2).
IEEE
[1]
P. Beirao et al., “A study of heating and cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 751, no. 2, 2012.
@article{8622854,
  abstract     = {NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [CII]158 mu m and [OI]63 mu m lines and mid-infrared H-2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158 mu m+[OI]63 mu m)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 mu m PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158 mu m/PAH(5.5-14 mu m) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158 mu m and [OI]63 mu m emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G(0) similar to 10(2.3) and n(H) similar to 10(3.5) cm(-3) in the ring. For these values of G(0) and n(H), PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H-2 emission. Much of the H-2 emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.},
  articleno    = {144},
  author       = {Beirao, P and Armus, L and Helou, G and Appleton, PN and Smith, J-DT and Croxall, KV and Murphy, EJ and Dale, DA and Draine, BT and Wolfire, MG and Sandstrom, KM and Aniano, G and Bolatto, AD and Groves, B and Brandl, BR and Schinnerer, E and Crocker, AF and Hinz, JL and Rix, H-W and Kennicutt, RC and Calzetti, D and Gil de Paz, A and Dumas, G and Galametz, M and Gordon, KD and Hao, C-N and Johnson, B and Koda, J and Krause, O and van der Laan, T and Leroy, AK and Li, Y and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Meyer, JD and Rahman, N and Roussel, H and Sauvage, M and Srinivasan, S and Vigroux, L and Walter, F and Warren, BE},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY,NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY,STAR-FORMING,GALAXIES,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,C-II,PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS,MOLECULAR-HYDROGEN,TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS,SEYFERT-GALAXIES,IRON PROJECT,galaxies: individual (NGC 1097),galaxies: ISM,galaxies: starburst,infrared: galaxies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {A study of heating and cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/144},
  volume       = {751},
  year         = {2012},
}

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