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On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G)

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Abstract
We study the m = 1 distortions (lopsidedness) in the stellar components of 167 nearby galaxies that span a wide range of morphologies and luminosities. We confirm the previous findings of (1) a high incidence of lopsidedness in the stellar distributions, (2) increasing lopsidedness as a function of radius out to at least 3.5 exponential scale lengths, and (3) greater lopsidedness, over these radii, for galaxies of later type and lower surface brightness. Additionally, the magnitude of the lopsidedness (1) correlates with the character of the spiral arms (stronger arm patterns occur in galaxies with less lopsidedness), (2) is not correlated with the presence or absence of a bar, or the strength of the bar when one is present, (3) is inversely correlated to the stellar mass fraction, f(*), within one radial scale length, and (4) correlates directly with f(*) measured within the radial range over which we measure lopsidedness. We interpret these findings to mean that lopsidedness is a generic feature of galaxies and does not, generally, depend on a rare event, such as a direct accretion of a satellite galaxy onto the disk of the parent galaxy. While lopsidedness may be caused by several phenomena, moderate lopsidedness (< A1 >(i) + < A(1)>(o))/2 < 0.3) is likely to reflect halo asymmetries to which the disk responds or a gravitationally self-generated mode. We hypothesize that the magnitude of the stellar response depends both on how centrally concentrated the stars are with respect to the dark matter and whether there are enough stars in the region of the lopsidedness that self-gravity is dynamically important.
Keywords
RECENT STAR-FORMATION, SPIRAL GALAXIES, GRAND DESIGN, ROTATION CURVES, DISK GALAXIES, DYNAMICS, PATTERN, SCALE, CLASSIFICATION, ASYMMETRY, galaxies: fundamental parameters, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: structure

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MLA
Zaritsky, Dennis, et al. “On the Origin of Lopsidedness in Galaxies as Determined from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 772, no. 2, 2013.
APA
Zaritsky, D., Salo, H., Laurikainen, E., Elmegreen, D., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., … Sheth, K. (2013). On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G). ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 772(2).
Chicago author-date
Zaritsky, Dennis, Heikki Salo, Eija Laurikainen, Debra Elmegreen, E Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Sebastien Comeron, et al. 2013. “On the Origin of Lopsidedness in Galaxies as Determined from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 772 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zaritsky, Dennis, Heikki Salo, Eija Laurikainen, Debra Elmegreen, E Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Sebastien Comeron, Santiago Erroz-Ferrer, Bruce Elmegreen, Dimitri A Gadotti, Armando Gil de Paz, Joannah L Hinz, Luis C Ho, Benne W Holwerda, Taehyun Kim, Johan H Knapen, Jarkko Laine, Seppo Laine, Barry F Madore, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Karin Menendez-Delmestre, Trisha Mizusawa, Juan Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Michael W Regan, Mark Seibert, and Kartik Sheth. 2013. “On the Origin of Lopsidedness in Galaxies as Determined from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 772 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Zaritsky D, Salo H, Laurikainen E, Elmegreen D, Athanassoula E, Bosma A, et al. On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G). ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2013;772(2).
IEEE
[1]
D. Zaritsky et al., “On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G),” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 772, no. 2, 2013.
@article{8622819,
  abstract     = {We study the m = 1 distortions (lopsidedness) in the stellar components of 167 nearby galaxies that span a wide range of morphologies and luminosities. We confirm the previous findings of (1) a high incidence of lopsidedness in the stellar distributions, (2) increasing lopsidedness as a function of radius out to at least 3.5 exponential scale lengths, and (3) greater lopsidedness, over these radii, for galaxies of later type and lower surface brightness. Additionally, the magnitude of the lopsidedness (1) correlates with the character of the spiral arms (stronger arm patterns occur in galaxies with less lopsidedness), (2) is not correlated with the presence or absence of a bar, or the strength of the bar when one is present, (3) is inversely correlated to the stellar mass fraction, f(*), within one radial scale length, and (4) correlates directly with f(*) measured within the radial range over which we measure lopsidedness. We interpret these findings to mean that lopsidedness is a generic feature of galaxies and does not, generally, depend on a rare event, such as a direct accretion of a satellite galaxy onto the disk of the parent galaxy. While lopsidedness may be caused by several phenomena, moderate lopsidedness (< A1 >(i) + < A(1)>(o))/2 < 0.3) is likely to reflect halo asymmetries to which the disk responds or a gravitationally self-generated mode. We hypothesize that the magnitude of the stellar response depends both on how centrally concentrated the stars are with respect to the dark matter and whether there are enough stars in the region of the lopsidedness that self-gravity is dynamically important.},
  articleno    = {135},
  author       = {Zaritsky, Dennis and Salo, Heikki and Laurikainen, Eija and Elmegreen, Debra and Athanassoula, E and Bosma, Albert and Comeron, Sebastien and Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago and Elmegreen, Bruce and Gadotti, Dimitri A and de Paz, Armando Gil and Hinz, Joannah L and Ho, Luis C and Holwerda, Benne W and Kim, Taehyun and Knapen, Johan H and Laine, Jarkko and Laine, Seppo and Madore, Barry F and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Menendez-Delmestre, Karin and Mizusawa, Trisha and Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos and Regan, Michael W and Seibert, Mark and Sheth, Kartik},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {RECENT STAR-FORMATION,SPIRAL GALAXIES,GRAND DESIGN,ROTATION CURVES,DISK GALAXIES,DYNAMICS,PATTERN,SCALE,CLASSIFICATION,ASYMMETRY,galaxies: fundamental parameters,galaxies: kinematics and dynamics,galaxies: structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/772/2/135},
  volume       = {772},
  year         = {2013},
}

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