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Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies

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Abstract
The morphology of galaxies can be quantified to some degree using a set of scale-invariant parameters. Concentration (C), asymmetry (A), smoothness (S), the Gini index (G), the relative contribution of the brightest pixels to the second-order moment of the flux (M-20), ellipticity (E), and the Gini index of the second-order moment (G(M)) have all been applied to morphologically classify galaxies at various wavelengths. Here, we present a catalog of these parameters for the Spitzer Survey of stellar structure in Galaxies, a volume-limited, near-infrared (NIR) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m channels of the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our goal is to provide a reference catalog of NIR quantified morphology for high-redshift studies and galaxy evolution models with enough detail to resolve stellar mass morphology. We explore where normal, non-interacting galaxies-those typically found on the Hubble tuning fork-lie in this parameter space and show that there is a tight relation between concentration (C-82) and M-20 for normal galaxies. M-20 can be used to classify galaxies into earlier and later types (i.e., to separate spirals from irregulars). Several criteria using these parameters exist to select systems with a disturbed morphology, i.e., those that appear to be undergoing a tidal interaction. We examine the applicability of these criteria to Spitzer NIR imaging. We find that four relations, based on the parameters A and S, G and M-20, G(M), C, and M-20, respectively, select outliers in morphological parameter space, but each selects different subsets of galaxies. Two criteria (G(M) > 0.6, G > -0.115 x M-20 + 0.384) seem most appropriate to identify possible mergers and the merger fraction in NIR surveys. We find no strong relation between lopsidedness and most of these morphological parameters, except for a weak dependence of lopsidedness on concentration and M-20.
Keywords
H I MORPHOLOGY, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, MAJOR MERGER FRACTION, EDGE-ON GALAXIES, SEEING GALAXIES, SPIRAL GALAXIES, STAR-FORMATION, HUBBLE-SPACE, MIDINFRARED EMISSION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: general, galaxies: irregular, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: statistics, galaxies: stellar, content, galaxies: structure

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MLA
Holwerda, BW, et al. “Morphological Parameters of a Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 781, no. 1, 2014.
APA
Holwerda, B., Munoz-Mateos, J.-C., Comeron, S., van der Wel, S. M., Sheth, K., Laine, S., … Pirzkal, N. (2014). Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 781(1).
Chicago author-date
Holwerda, BW, J-C Munoz-Mateos, S Comeron, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, K Sheth, S Laine, JL Hinz, et al. 2014. “Morphological Parameters of a Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 781 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Holwerda, BW, J-C Munoz-Mateos, S Comeron, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, K Sheth, S Laine, JL Hinz, MW Regan, A Gil de Paz, K Menendez-Delmestre, M Seibert, T Kim, T Mizusawa, E Laurikainen, H Salo, J Laine, DA Gadotti, D Zaritsky, S Erroz-Ferrer, LC Ho, JH Knapen, E Athanassoula, A Bosma, and N Pirzkal. 2014. “Morphological Parameters of a Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 781 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Holwerda B, Munoz-Mateos J-C, Comeron S, van der Wel SM, Sheth K, Laine S, et al. Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2014;781(1).
IEEE
[1]
B. Holwerda et al., “Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 781, no. 1, 2014.
@article{8622311,
  abstract     = {The morphology of galaxies can be quantified to some degree using a set of scale-invariant parameters. Concentration (C), asymmetry (A), smoothness (S), the Gini index (G), the relative contribution of the brightest pixels to the second-order moment of the flux (M-20), ellipticity (E), and the Gini index of the second-order moment (G(M)) have all been applied to morphologically classify galaxies at various wavelengths. Here, we present a catalog of these parameters for the Spitzer Survey of stellar structure in Galaxies, a volume-limited, near-infrared (NIR) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m channels of the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our goal is to provide a reference catalog of NIR quantified morphology for high-redshift studies and galaxy evolution models with enough detail to resolve stellar mass morphology. We explore where normal, non-interacting galaxies-those typically found on the Hubble tuning fork-lie in this parameter space and show that there is a tight relation between concentration (C-82) and M-20 for normal galaxies. M-20 can be used to classify galaxies into earlier and later types (i.e., to separate spirals from irregulars). Several criteria using these parameters exist to select systems with a disturbed morphology, i.e., those that appear to be undergoing a tidal interaction. We examine the applicability of these criteria to Spitzer NIR imaging. We find that four relations, based on the parameters A and S, G and M-20, G(M), C, and M-20, respectively, select outliers in morphological parameter space, but each selects different subsets of galaxies. Two criteria (G(M) > 0.6, G > -0.115 x M-20 + 0.384) seem most appropriate to identify possible mergers and the merger fraction in NIR surveys. We find no strong relation between lopsidedness and most of these morphological parameters, except for a weak dependence of lopsidedness on concentration and M-20.},
  articleno    = {12},
  author       = {Holwerda, BW and Munoz-Mateos, J-C and Comeron, S and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Sheth, K and Laine, S and Hinz, JL and Regan, MW and Gil de Paz, A and Menendez-Delmestre, K and Seibert, M and Kim, T and Mizusawa, T and Laurikainen, E and Salo, H and Laine, J and Gadotti, DA and Zaritsky, D and Erroz-Ferrer, S and Ho, LC and Knapen, JH and Athanassoula, E and Bosma, A and Pirzkal, N},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {H I MORPHOLOGY,POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS,MAJOR MERGER FRACTION,EDGE-ON GALAXIES,SEEING GALAXIES,SPIRAL GALAXIES,STAR-FORMATION,HUBBLE-SPACE,MIDINFRARED EMISSION,LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,galaxies: elliptical and lenticular,cD,galaxies: general,galaxies: irregular,galaxies: spiral,galaxies: statistics,galaxies: stellar,content,galaxies: structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/12},
  volume       = {781},
  year         = {2014},
}

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