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The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : multi-phase cold gas kinematic of M51

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Abstract
The kinematic complexity and the favorable position of M51 on the sky make this galaxy an ideal target to test different theories of spiral arm dynamics. Taking advantage of the new high-resolution PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey data, we undertake a detailed kinematic study of M51 to characterize and quantify the origin and nature of the non-circular motions. Using a tilted-ring analysis supported by several other archival data sets, we update the estimation of M51's position angle (P. A. = (173 +/- 3)degrees) and inclination (i = (22 +/- 5)degrees). Harmonic decomposition of the high-resolution (similar to 40 pc) CO velocity field shows the first kinematic evidence of an m = 3 wave in the inner disk of M51 with a corotation at R-CR,(m=3) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 kpc and a pattern speed of Omega p,m=3 approximate to 140 km s(-1) kpc(-1). This mode seems to be excited by the nuclear bar, while the beat frequencies generated by the coupling between the m = 3 mode and the main spiral structure confirm its density-wave nature. We observe also a signature of an m = 1 mode that is likely responsible for the lopsidedness of M51 at small and large radii. We provide a simple method to estimate the radial variation of the amplitude of the spiral perturbation (V-sp) attributed to the different modes. The main spiral arm structure has V-sp = 50-70 km s(-1), while the streaming velocity associated with the m = 1 and m = 3 modes is, in general, two times lower. Our joint analysis of H I and CO velocity fields at low and high spatial resolution reveals that the atomic and molecular gas phases respond differently to the spiral perturbation due to their different vertical distribution and emission morphology.
Keywords
SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE, MOLECULAR GAS, STAR-FORMATION, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, NEARBY GALAXIES, MODAL APPROACH, DISK GALAXIES, VELOCITY DISPERSION, GALACTIC DISCS, DYNAMICS, galaxies: individual (M51, NGC 5194), galaxies: ISM, galaxies:, kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure, ISM: kinematics and dynamics

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MLA
Colombo, Dario, et al. “The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : Multi-Phase Cold Gas Kinematic of M51.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 784, no. 1, 2014.
APA
Colombo, D., van der Wel, S. M., Schinnerer, E., Garcia-Burillo, S., Hughes, A., Pety, J., … Kramer, C. (2014). The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : multi-phase cold gas kinematic of M51. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 784(1).
Chicago author-date
Colombo, Dario, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Eva Schinnerer, Santiago Garcia-Burillo, Annie Hughes, Jerome Pety, Adam K Leroy, et al. 2014. “The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : Multi-Phase Cold Gas Kinematic of M51.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 784 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Colombo, Dario, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Eva Schinnerer, Santiago Garcia-Burillo, Annie Hughes, Jerome Pety, Adam K Leroy, Clare L Dobbs, Gaelle Dumas, Todd A Thompson, Karl F Schuster, and Carsten Kramer. 2014. “The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : Multi-Phase Cold Gas Kinematic of M51.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 784 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Colombo D, van der Wel SM, Schinnerer E, Garcia-Burillo S, Hughes A, Pety J, et al. The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : multi-phase cold gas kinematic of M51. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2014;784(1).
IEEE
[1]
D. Colombo et al., “The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : multi-phase cold gas kinematic of M51,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 784, no. 1, 2014.
@article{8622308,
  abstract     = {The kinematic complexity and the favorable position of M51 on the sky make this galaxy an ideal target to test different theories of spiral arm dynamics. Taking advantage of the new high-resolution PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey data, we undertake a detailed kinematic study of M51 to characterize and quantify the origin and nature of the non-circular motions. Using a tilted-ring analysis supported by several other archival data sets, we update the estimation of M51's position angle (P. A. = (173 +/- 3)degrees) and inclination (i = (22 +/- 5)degrees). Harmonic decomposition of the high-resolution (similar to 40 pc) CO velocity field shows the first kinematic evidence of an m = 3 wave in the inner disk of M51 with a corotation at R-CR,(m=3) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 kpc and a pattern speed of Omega p,m=3 approximate to 140 km s(-1) kpc(-1). This mode seems to be excited by the nuclear bar, while the beat frequencies generated by the coupling between the m = 3 mode and the main spiral structure confirm its density-wave nature. We observe also a signature of an m = 1 mode that is likely responsible for the lopsidedness of M51 at small and large radii. We provide a simple method to estimate the radial variation of the amplitude of the spiral perturbation (V-sp) attributed to the different modes. The main spiral arm structure has  V-sp  = 50-70 km s(-1), while the streaming velocity associated with the m = 1 and m = 3 modes is, in general, two times lower. Our joint analysis of H I and CO velocity fields at low and high spatial resolution reveals that the atomic and molecular gas phases respond differently to the spiral perturbation due to their different vertical distribution and emission morphology.},
  articleno    = {4},
  author       = {Colombo, Dario and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Schinnerer, Eva and Garcia-Burillo, Santiago and Hughes, Annie and Pety, Jerome and Leroy, Adam K and Dobbs, Clare L and Dumas, Gaelle and Thompson, Todd A and Schuster, Karl F and Kramer, Carsten},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE,MOLECULAR GAS,STAR-FORMATION,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,NEARBY GALAXIES,MODAL APPROACH,DISK GALAXIES,VELOCITY DISPERSION,GALACTIC DISCS,DYNAMICS,galaxies: individual (M51,NGC 5194),galaxies: ISM,galaxies:,kinematics and dynamics,galaxies: spiral,galaxies: structure,ISM: kinematics and dynamics},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {18},
  title        = {The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) : multi-phase cold gas kinematic of M51},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/4},
  volume       = {784},
  year         = {2014},
}

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