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[C II] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer

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Abstract
The [CII] 157.74 mu m transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [CII] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [CII] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The uncertainty of the Sigma([CII]) - Sigma(SFR) calibration is +/- 0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted Sigma([CII]) - Sigma(SFR) correlation is valid over almost five orders of magnitude in Sigma(SFR), holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [CII] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [CII] finds that heating efficiencies are 1%-3% in normal galaxies.
Keywords
WARM IONIZED MEDIUM, C-II LINE, ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES, SPACE-OBSERVATORY MEASUREMENTS, LOW-METALLICITY GALAXY, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, NEARBY GALAXIES, VIRGO CLUSTER, H-ALPHA, SPIRAL, GALAXIES, galaxies: ISM, galaxies: star formation, infrared: galaxies, ISM: structure

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Citation

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MLA
Herrera-Camus, R., et al. “[C II] 158 Μm Emission as a Star Formation Tracer.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 800, no. 1, 2015.
APA
Herrera-Camus, R., Bolatto, A., Wolfire, M., Smith, J., Croxall, K., Kennicutt, R., … Beirao, P. (2015). [C II] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 800(1).
Chicago author-date
Herrera-Camus, R, AD Bolatto, MG Wolfire, JD Smith, KV Croxall, RC Kennicutt, D Calzetti, et al. 2015. “[C II] 158 Μm Emission as a Star Formation Tracer.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 800 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Herrera-Camus, R, AD Bolatto, MG Wolfire, JD Smith, KV Croxall, RC Kennicutt, D Calzetti, G Helou, F Walter, AK Leroy, B Draine, BR Brandl, L Armus, KM Sandstrom, DA Dale, G Aniano, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, M Boquien, LK Hunt, M Galametz, FS Tabatabaei, EJ Murphy, P Appleton, H Roussel, C Engelbracht, and P Beirao. 2015. “[C II] 158 Μm Emission as a Star Formation Tracer.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 800 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Herrera-Camus R, Bolatto A, Wolfire M, Smith J, Croxall K, Kennicutt R, et al. [C II] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2015;800(1).
IEEE
[1]
R. Herrera-Camus et al., “[C II] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 800, no. 1, 2015.
@article{8622292,
  abstract     = {The [CII] 157.74 mu m transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [CII] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [CII] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The uncertainty of the Sigma([CII]) - Sigma(SFR) calibration is +/- 0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted Sigma([CII]) - Sigma(SFR) correlation is valid over almost five orders of magnitude in Sigma(SFR), holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [CII] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [CII] finds that heating efficiencies are 1%-3% in normal galaxies.},
  articleno    = {1},
  author       = {Herrera-Camus, R and Bolatto, AD and Wolfire, MG and Smith, JD and Croxall, KV and Kennicutt, RC and Calzetti, D and Helou, G and Walter, F and Leroy, AK and Draine, B and Brandl, BR and Armus, L and Sandstrom, KM and Dale, DA and Aniano, G and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Boquien, M and Hunt, LK and Galametz, M and Tabatabaei, FS and Murphy, EJ and Appleton, P and Roussel, H and Engelbracht, C and Beirao, P},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {WARM IONIZED MEDIUM,C-II LINE,ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES,SPACE-OBSERVATORY MEASUREMENTS,LOW-METALLICITY GALAXY,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,NEARBY GALAXIES,VIRGO CLUSTER,H-ALPHA,SPIRAL,GALAXIES,galaxies: ISM,galaxies: star formation,infrared: galaxies,ISM: structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {22},
  title        = {[C II] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/1/1},
  volume       = {800},
  year         = {2015},
}

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