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The Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G) : precise stellar mass distributions from automated dust correction at 3.6 µm

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Abstract
The mid-infrared is an optimal window to trace stellar mass in nearby galaxies and the 3.6 mm IRAC band has been exploited to this effect, but such mass estimates can be biased by dust emission. We present our pipeline to reveal the old stellar flux at 3.6 mu m and obtain stellar mass maps for more than 1600 galaxies available from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S(4)G). This survey consists of images in two infrared bands (3.6 and 4.5 mu m), and we use the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method presented in Meidt et al. to separate the dominant light from old stars and the dust emission that can significantly contribute to the observed 3.6 mm flux. We exclude from our ICA analysis galaxies with low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N < 10) and those with original [3.6]-[4.5] colors compatible with an old stellar population, indicative of little dust emission (mostly early Hubble types, which can directly provide good mass maps). For the remaining 1251 galaxies to which ICA was successfully applied, we find that as much as 10%-30% of the total light at 3.6 mu m typically originates from dust, and locally it can reach even higher values. This contamination fraction shows a correlation with specific star formation rates, confirming that the dust emission that we detect is related to star formation. Additionally, we have used our large sample of mass estimates to calibrate a relationship of effective mass-to-light ratio (M/L) as a function of observed [3.6]-[4.5] color: log(M/L) = -0.339(+/- 0.057) x ([3.6]-[4.5])-0.336(+/- 0.002). Our final pipeline products have been made public through IRSA, providing the astronomical community with an unprecedentedly large set of stellar mass maps ready to use for scientific applications.
Keywords
INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA, INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS, NEARBY SPIRAL, GALAXIES, SECULAR EVOLUTION, SAURON PROJECT, SURFACE PHOTOMETRY, SPACE-TELESCOPE, CENTRAL REGION, STAR-FORMATION, DISK GALAXIES

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MLA
Querejeta, Miguel, et al. “The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) : Precise Stellar Mass Distributions from Automated Dust Correction at 3.6 Μm.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, vol. 219, no. 1, 2015.
APA
Querejeta, M., van der Wel, S. M., Schinnerer, E., Cisternas, M., Carlos Munoz-Mateos, J., Sheth, K., … Comern, S. (2015). The Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G) : precise stellar mass distributions from automated dust correction at 3.6 µm. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, 219(1).
Chicago author-date
Querejeta, Miguel, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Eva Schinnerer, Mauricio Cisternas, Juan Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Kartik Sheth, Johan Knapen, et al. 2015. “The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) : Precise Stellar Mass Distributions from Automated Dust Correction at 3.6 Μm.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 219 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Querejeta, Miguel, Sharon Meidt van der Wel, Eva Schinnerer, Mauricio Cisternas, Juan Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Kartik Sheth, Johan Knapen, Glenn Van de Ven, Mark A Norris, Reynier Peletier, Eija Laurikainen, Heikki Salo, Benne W Holwerda, E. Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Brent Groves, Luis C Ho, Dimitri A Gadotti, Dennis Zaritsky, Michael Regan, Joannah Hinz, Armando Gil de Paz, Karin Menendez-Delmestre, Mark Seibert, Trisha Mizusawa, Taehyun Kim, Santiago Erroz-Ferrer, Jarkko Laine, and Sebastien Comern. 2015. “The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) : Precise Stellar Mass Distributions from Automated Dust Correction at 3.6 Μm.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 219 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Querejeta M, van der Wel SM, Schinnerer E, Cisternas M, Carlos Munoz-Mateos J, Sheth K, et al. The Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G) : precise stellar mass distributions from automated dust correction at 3.6 µm. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES. 2015;219(1).
IEEE
[1]
M. Querejeta et al., “The Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G) : precise stellar mass distributions from automated dust correction at 3.6 µm,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, vol. 219, no. 1, 2015.
@article{8622278,
  abstract     = {The mid-infrared is an optimal window to trace stellar mass in nearby galaxies and the 3.6 mm IRAC band has been exploited to this effect, but such mass estimates can be biased by dust emission. We present our pipeline to reveal the old stellar flux at 3.6 mu m and obtain stellar mass maps for more than 1600 galaxies available from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S(4)G). This survey consists of images in two infrared bands (3.6 and 4.5 mu m), and we use the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method presented in Meidt et al. to separate the dominant light from old stars and the dust emission that can significantly contribute to the observed 3.6 mm flux. We exclude from our ICA analysis galaxies with low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N < 10) and those with original [3.6]-[4.5] colors compatible with an old stellar population, indicative of little dust emission (mostly early Hubble types, which can directly provide good mass maps). For the remaining 1251 galaxies to which ICA was successfully applied, we find that as much as 10%-30% of the total light at 3.6 mu m typically originates from dust, and locally it can reach even higher values. This contamination fraction shows a correlation with specific star formation rates, confirming that the dust emission that we detect is related to star formation. Additionally, we have used our large sample of mass estimates to calibrate a relationship of effective mass-to-light ratio (M/L) as a function of observed [3.6]-[4.5] color: log(M/L) = -0.339(+/- 0.057) x ([3.6]-[4.5])-0.336(+/- 0.002). Our final pipeline products have been made public through IRSA, providing the astronomical community with an unprecedentedly large set of stellar mass maps ready to use for scientific applications.},
  articleno    = {5},
  author       = {Querejeta, Miguel and van der Wel, Sharon Meidt and Schinnerer, Eva and Cisternas, Mauricio and Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Juan and Sheth, Kartik and Knapen, Johan and Van de Ven, Glenn and Norris, Mark A and Peletier, Reynier and Laurikainen, Eija and Salo, Heikki and Holwerda, Benne W and Athanassoula, E. and Bosma, Albert and Groves, Brent and Ho, Luis C and Gadotti, Dimitri A and Zaritsky, Dennis and Regan, Michael and Hinz, Joannah and Gil de Paz, Armando and Menendez-Delmestre, Karin and Seibert, Mark and Mizusawa, Trisha and Kim, Taehyun and Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago and Laine, Jarkko and Comern, Sebastien},
  issn         = {0067-0049},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES},
  keywords     = {INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA,INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS,NEARBY SPIRAL,GALAXIES,SECULAR EVOLUTION,SAURON PROJECT,SURFACE PHOTOMETRY,SPACE-TELESCOPE,CENTRAL REGION,STAR-FORMATION,DISK GALAXIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {The Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S⁴G) : precise stellar mass distributions from automated dust correction at 3.6 µm},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/5},
  volume       = {219},
  year         = {2015},
}

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