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Spatiotemporal electrochemistry on flexible microelectrode arrays: progress towards smart contact lens integration

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Abstract
We demonstrate a real-speed spatiotemporal electrochemical map showing both time- and position-varying concentration of an analyte in contact with a flexible microelectrode array. A polymer-based device of 11 μm in thickness comprising patterned gold metallisation on a polyimide substrate was fabricated, with eight in- dividually addressable working electrodes (diameter 30 μm) and an integrated counter electrode. We performed a repeated sequence of high-speed chronoamperometric measurements at each electrode and processed the data to generate a spatiotemporal concentration map, in which a number of fluid effects, including bulk flow, dif- fusive mixing and homogenisation of two miscible fluids of different concentration were observed. This device was fabricated using processes compatible with an existing smart contact lens platform, with a view to develop integrated sensors in future work. We believe this technique has significant potential in the field of electro- chemical smart contact lenses, both in introducing new functionality and in improving our ability to draw accurate and clinically-relevant conclusions from measurements made in the tear film.
Keywords
Instrumentation, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Materials Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Condensed Matter Physics, Metals and Alloys

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MLA
Donora, Matthew, et al. “Spatiotemporal Electrochemistry on Flexible Microelectrode Arrays: Progress towards Smart Contact Lens Integration.” SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, vol. 296, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.snb.2019.126671.
APA
Donora, M., Gonzalez-Fernandez, E., Vasquez Quintero, A. F., De Smet, H., & Underwood, I. (2019). Spatiotemporal electrochemistry on flexible microelectrode arrays: progress towards smart contact lens integration. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, 296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2019.126671
Chicago author-date
Donora, Matthew, Eva Gonzalez-Fernandez, Andrés Felipe Vasquez Quintero, Herbert De Smet, and Ian Underwood. 2019. “Spatiotemporal Electrochemistry on Flexible Microelectrode Arrays: Progress towards Smart Contact Lens Integration.” SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL 296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2019.126671.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Donora, Matthew, Eva Gonzalez-Fernandez, Andrés Felipe Vasquez Quintero, Herbert De Smet, and Ian Underwood. 2019. “Spatiotemporal Electrochemistry on Flexible Microelectrode Arrays: Progress towards Smart Contact Lens Integration.” SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL 296. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2019.126671.
Vancouver
1.
Donora M, Gonzalez-Fernandez E, Vasquez Quintero AF, De Smet H, Underwood I. Spatiotemporal electrochemistry on flexible microelectrode arrays: progress towards smart contact lens integration. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL. 2019;296.
IEEE
[1]
M. Donora, E. Gonzalez-Fernandez, A. F. Vasquez Quintero, H. De Smet, and I. Underwood, “Spatiotemporal electrochemistry on flexible microelectrode arrays: progress towards smart contact lens integration,” SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, vol. 296, 2019.
@article{8621922,
  abstract     = {We demonstrate a real-speed spatiotemporal electrochemical map showing both time- and position-varying
concentration of an analyte in contact with a flexible microelectrode array. A polymer-based device of 11 μm in
thickness comprising patterned gold metallisation on a polyimide substrate was fabricated, with eight in-
dividually addressable working electrodes (diameter 30 μm) and an integrated counter electrode. We performed
a repeated sequence of high-speed chronoamperometric measurements at each electrode and processed the data
to generate a spatiotemporal concentration map, in which a number of fluid effects, including bulk flow, dif-
fusive mixing and homogenisation of two miscible fluids of different concentration were observed. This device
was fabricated using processes compatible with an existing smart contact lens platform, with a view to develop
integrated sensors in future work. We believe this technique has significant potential in the field of electro-
chemical smart contact lenses, both in introducing new functionality and in improving our ability to draw
accurate and clinically-relevant conclusions from measurements made in the tear film.},
  articleno    = {126671},
  author       = {Donora, Matthew and Gonzalez-Fernandez, Eva and Vasquez Quintero, Andrés Felipe and De Smet, Herbert and Underwood, Ian},
  issn         = {0925-4005},
  journal      = {SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL},
  keywords     = {Instrumentation,Electrical and Electronic Engineering,Materials Chemistry,Electronic,Optical and Magnetic Materials,Surfaces,Coatings and Films,Condensed Matter Physics,Metals and Alloys},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Spatiotemporal electrochemistry on flexible microelectrode arrays: progress towards smart contact lens integration},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2019.126671},
  volume       = {296},
  year         = {2019},
}

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