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Resource provisioning in fog computing : from theory to practice

(2019) SENSORS. 19(10). p.1-25
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Abstract
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) and Smart Cities continue to expand at enormous rates. Centralized Cloud architectures cannot sustain the requirements imposed by IoT services. Enormous traffic demands and low latency constraints are among the strictest requirements, making cloud solutions impractical. As an answer, Fog Computing has been introduced to tackle this trend. However, only theoretical foundations have been established and the acceptance of its concepts is still in its early stages. Intelligent allocation decisions would provide proper resource provisioning in Fog environments. In this article, a Fog architecture based on Kubernetes, an open source container orchestration platform, is proposed to solve this challenge. Additionally, a network-aware scheduling approach for container-based applications in Smart City deployments has been implemented as an extension to the default scheduling mechanism available in Kubernetes. Last but not least, an optimization formulation for the IoT service problem has been validated as a container-based application in Kubernetes showing the full applicability of theoretical approaches in practical service deployments. Evaluations have been performed to compare the proposed approaches with the Kubernetes standard scheduling feature. Results show that the proposed approaches achieve reductions of 70% in terms of network latency when compared to the default scheduling mechanism.
Keywords
THINGS, smart cities, IoT, fog computing, resource provisioning, Kubernetes

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Pereira dos Santos, José Pedro, Tim Wauters, Bruno Volckaert, and Filip De Turck. 2019. “Resource Provisioning in Fog Computing : from Theory to Practice.” Sensors 19 (10): 1–25.
APA
Pereira dos Santos, J. P., Wauters, T., Volckaert, B., & De Turck, F. (2019). Resource provisioning in fog computing : from theory to practice. SENSORS, 19(10), 1–25.
Vancouver
1.
Pereira dos Santos JP, Wauters T, Volckaert B, De Turck F. Resource provisioning in fog computing : from theory to practice. SENSORS. Basel: Mdpi; 2019;19(10):1–25.
MLA
Pereira dos Santos, José Pedro et al. “Resource Provisioning in Fog Computing : from Theory to Practice.” SENSORS 19.10 (2019): 1–25. Print.
@article{8621451,
  abstract     = {The Internet-of-Things (IoT) and Smart Cities continue to expand at enormous rates. Centralized Cloud architectures cannot sustain the requirements imposed by IoT services. Enormous traffic demands and low latency constraints are among the strictest requirements, making cloud solutions impractical. As an answer, Fog Computing has been introduced to tackle this trend. However, only theoretical foundations have been established and the acceptance of its concepts is still in its early stages. Intelligent allocation decisions would provide proper resource provisioning in Fog environments. In this article, a Fog architecture based on Kubernetes, an open source container orchestration platform, is proposed to solve this challenge. Additionally, a network-aware scheduling approach for container-based applications in Smart City deployments has been implemented as an extension to the default scheduling mechanism available in Kubernetes. Last but not least, an optimization formulation for the IoT service problem has been validated as a container-based application in Kubernetes showing the full applicability of theoretical approaches in practical service deployments. Evaluations have been performed to compare the proposed approaches with the Kubernetes standard scheduling feature. Results show that the proposed approaches achieve reductions of 70% in terms of network latency when compared to the default scheduling mechanism.},
  articleno    = {2238},
  author       = {Pereira dos Santos, José Pedro and Wauters, Tim and Volckaert, Bruno and De Turck, Filip},
  issn         = {1424-8220},
  journal      = {SENSORS},
  keywords     = {THINGS,smart cities,IoT,fog computing,resource provisioning,Kubernetes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {2238:1--2238:25},
  publisher    = {Mdpi},
  title        = {Resource provisioning in fog computing : from theory to practice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19102238},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2019},
}

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