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Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies

(2019) ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL. 127. p.190-198
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Abstract
Exchangeable lead (Pb) extracted by ammonium acetate from three independent incubation studies was assessed to understand the influence of feedstock, pyrolysis temperatures, and production conditions on Pb immobilization capacities of different biochars. Vegetable waste biochar, pine cone, wood bark, cocopeat, red pepper stalk, and palm kernel shell were used as feedstocks (food supply and agricultural wastes) to produce biochars at 200-650 degrees C with and without N-2/CO2. Biochars were applied at 5 and 2.5% (w w(-1)) to a Pb contaminated (i.e., 1445 mg kg(-1)) agricultural soil collected near an old mine. Lead immobilization in biochar treated soils at the end of incubation period was normalized per gram of biochar applied. Biochar produced from vegetable waste at 500 degrees C showed the highest Pb immobilization (87%) and highest total exchangeable cations (13.5 cmol((+)) kg(-1)) at the end of the 45 d incubation period. However, on the basis of Pb immobilization per gram of biochar, red pepper stalk biochar produced in CO2 at 650 degrees C was the best in Pb immobilization (0.09 mg kg(-1) g(-1) biochar) compared to the other biochars. The enhanced ability to immobilize Pb by biochar produced in CO2 could be due to the presence of siloxanes (-Si-O-Si-) on biochar surface. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that alkaline pH, ash%, and N% of biochars influence in Pb immobilization and exchangeable cation availability in soil. Biochar production atmosphere considerably change its properties that influence Pb immobilization. Further studies are needed on the modification of properties and Pb immobilization by biochars produced from various feedstocks in CO2.
Keywords
CO2 pyrolysis, Soil stabilization, Metals/metalloids, Waste valorization/recycling, Black carbon, Engineered biochar, MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ABUNDANCE, HEAVY-METAL IMMOBILIZATION, DISSOLVED ORGANIC-MATTER, CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLOW PYROLYSIS, MUSSEL SHELL, COW BONE, WASTE, ADSORPTION, WATER

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MLA
Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani, et al. “Soil Lead Immobilization by Biochars in Short-Term Laboratory Incubation Studies.” ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, vol. 127, 2019, pp. 190–98, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031.
APA
Igalavithana, A. D., Kwon, E. E., Vithanage, M., Rinklebe, J., Moon, D. H., Meers, E., … Ok, Y. S. (2019). Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies. ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, 127, 190–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031
Chicago author-date
Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani, Eilhann E Kwon, Meththika Vithanage, Jörg Rinklebe, Deok Hyun Moon, Erik Meers, Daniel CW Tsang, and Yong Sik Ok. 2019. “Soil Lead Immobilization by Biochars in Short-Term Laboratory Incubation Studies.” ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL 127: 190–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani, Eilhann E Kwon, Meththika Vithanage, Jörg Rinklebe, Deok Hyun Moon, Erik Meers, Daniel CW Tsang, and Yong Sik Ok. 2019. “Soil Lead Immobilization by Biochars in Short-Term Laboratory Incubation Studies.” ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL 127: 190–198. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031.
Vancouver
1.
Igalavithana AD, Kwon EE, Vithanage M, Rinklebe J, Moon DH, Meers E, et al. Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies. ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL. 2019;127:190–8.
IEEE
[1]
A. D. Igalavithana et al., “Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies,” ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, vol. 127, pp. 190–198, 2019.
@article{8621304,
  abstract     = {Exchangeable lead (Pb) extracted by ammonium acetate from three independent incubation studies was assessed to understand the influence of feedstock, pyrolysis temperatures, and production conditions on Pb immobilization capacities of different biochars. Vegetable waste biochar, pine cone, wood bark, cocopeat, red pepper stalk, and palm kernel shell were used as feedstocks (food supply and agricultural wastes) to produce biochars at 200-650 degrees C with and without N-2/CO2. Biochars were applied at 5 and 2.5% (w w(-1)) to a Pb contaminated (i.e., 1445 mg kg(-1)) agricultural soil collected near an old mine. Lead immobilization in biochar treated soils at the end of incubation period was normalized per gram of biochar applied. Biochar produced from vegetable waste at 500 degrees C showed the highest Pb immobilization (87%) and highest total exchangeable cations (13.5 cmol((+)) kg(-1)) at the end of the 45 d incubation period. However, on the basis of Pb immobilization per gram of biochar, red pepper stalk biochar produced in CO2 at 650 degrees C was the best in Pb immobilization (0.09 mg kg(-1) g(-1) biochar) compared to the other biochars. The enhanced ability to immobilize Pb by biochar produced in CO2 could be due to the presence of siloxanes (-Si-O-Si-) on biochar surface. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that alkaline pH, ash%, and N% of biochars influence in Pb immobilization and exchangeable cation availability in soil. Biochar production atmosphere considerably change its properties that influence Pb immobilization. Further studies are needed on the modification of properties and Pb immobilization by biochars produced from various feedstocks in CO2.},
  author       = {Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani and Kwon, Eilhann E and Vithanage, Meththika and Rinklebe, Jörg and Moon, Deok Hyun and Meers, Erik and Tsang, Daniel CW and Ok, Yong Sik},
  issn         = {0160-4120},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL},
  keywords     = {CO2 pyrolysis,Soil stabilization,Metals/metalloids,Waste valorization/recycling,Black carbon,Engineered biochar,MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ABUNDANCE,HEAVY-METAL IMMOBILIZATION,DISSOLVED ORGANIC-MATTER,CONTAMINATED SOIL,SLOW PYROLYSIS,MUSSEL SHELL,COW BONE,WASTE,ADSORPTION,WATER},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {190--198},
  title        = {Soil lead immobilization by biochars in short-term laboratory incubation studies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.031},
  volume       = {127},
  year         = {2019},
}

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