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Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert

(2018) SCIENCE. 361(6398). p.147-151
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Abstract
A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 sigma evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G. et al. “Neutrino Emission from the Direction of the Blazar TXS 0506+056 Prior to the IceCube-170922A Alert.” SCIENCE 361.6398 (2018): 147–151. Print.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Al Samarai, I., et al. (2018). Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert. SCIENCE, 361(6398), 147–151.
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, I. Al Samarai, et al. 2018. “Neutrino Emission from the Direction of the Blazar TXS 0506+056 Prior to the IceCube-170922A Alert.” Science 361 (6398): 147–151.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, I. Al Samarai, D. Altmann, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, B. Arsioli, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, J. P. Barron, S. W. Barwick, V. Baum, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, J. Becker Tjus, K. -H. Becker, S. Ben Zvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Borner, F. Bos, S. Boser, O. Botner, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, M. Brenzke, H. -P. Bretz, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, A. Christov, K. Clark, L. Classen, S. Coenders, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, M. Day, J. P. A. M. de Andre, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. De Young, J. C. Diaz-Velez, V. di Lorenzo, H. Dujmovic, J. P. Dumm, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, B. Eichmann, P. Eller, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, S. Flis, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, P. Giommi, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hunnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, E. Jacobi, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, P. Kalaczynski, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, A. Keivani, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, M. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, J. P. Koschinsky, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, B. Krammer, K. Krings, M. Kroll, G. Kruckl, S. Kunwar, N. Kurahashi, T. Kuwabara, A. Kyriacou, Mathieu Labare, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, K. Leonard, M. Lesiak-Bzdak, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, S. Mancina, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, K. Meagher, M. Medici, M. Meier, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, S. Miarecki, J. Micallef, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Nahnhauer, P. Nakarmi, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, P. Padovani, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, P. Peiffer, J. A. Pepper, C. Perez de los Heros, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, M. Plum, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, L. Radel, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Relich, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I. Safa, N. Sahakyan, T. Salzer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, S. Schoenen, S. Schoneberg, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, A. Stasik, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stossl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, M. Sutherland, I. Taboada, J. Tatar, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, M. N. Tobin, C. Toennis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, Sander Vanheule, J. van Santen, E. Vogel, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, F. D. Wandler, N. Wandkowsky, A. Waza, C. Weaver, M. J. Weiss, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, S. Westerhoff, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, and T. Yuan. 2018. “Neutrino Emission from the Direction of the Blazar TXS 0506+056 Prior to the IceCube-170922A Alert.” Science 361 (6398): 147–151.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert. SCIENCE. 2018;361(6398):147–51.
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert,” SCIENCE, vol. 361, no. 6398, pp. 147–151, 2018.
@article{8620605,
  abstract     = {A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 sigma evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.},
  author       = {Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Al Samarai, I. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Arsioli, B. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barron, J. P. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Tjus, J. Becker and Becker, K. -H. and Ben Zvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Borner, M. and Bos, F. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Brenzke, M. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and Day, M. and de Andre, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and De Young, T. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and di Lorenzo, V. and Dujmovic, H. and Dumm, J. P. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giommi, P. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Hunnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kalaczynski, P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kim, M. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koschinsky, J. P. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krammer, B. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Kruckl, G. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kuwabara, T. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Leonard, K. and Lesiak-Bzdak, M. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Mancina, S. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Meier, M. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Padovani, P. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Peiffer, P. and Pepper, J. A. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Plum, M. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Radel, L. and Rameez, M. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Relich, M. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I. and Sahakyan, N. and Salzer, T. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schoenen, S. and Schoneberg, S. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stossl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taboada, I. and Tatar, J. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Toale, P. A. and Tobin, M. N. and Toennis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vanheule, Sander and van Santen, J. and Vogel, E. and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandler, F. D. and Wandkowsky, N. and Waza, A. and Weaver, C. and Weiss, M. J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T.},
  issn         = {0036-8075},
  journal      = {SCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6398},
  pages        = {147--151},
  title        = {Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat2890},
  volume       = {361},
  year         = {2018},
}

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