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Development of a quality assurance process for the SoLid experiment

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Abstract
The SoLid experiment has been designed to search for an oscillation pattern induced by a light sterile neutrino state, utilising the BR2 reactor of SCK circle CEN, in Belgium. The detector leverages a new hybrid technology, utilising two distinct scintillators in a cubic array, creating a highly segmented detector volume. A combination of 5 cm cubic polyvinyltoluene cells, with (LiF)-Li-6:ZnS(Ag) sheets on two faces of each cube, facilitate reconstruction of the neutrino signals. Whilst the high granularity provides a powerful toolset to discriminate backgrounds; by itself the segmentation also represents a challenge in terms of homogeneity and calibration, for a consistent detector response. The search for this light sterile neutrino implies a sensitivity to distortions of around O(10)% in the energy spectrum of reactor (v) over bare. Hence, a very good neutron detection efficiency, light yield and homogeneous detector response are critical for data validation. The minimal requirements for the SoLid physics program are a light yield and a neutron detection efficiency larger than 40 PA/MeV/cube and 50% respectively. In order to guarantee these minimal requirements, the collaboration developed a rigorous quality assurance process for all 12800 cubic cells of the detector. To carry out the quality assurance process, an automated calibration system called CALIPSO was designed and constructed. CALIPSO provides precise, automatic placement of radioactive sources in front of each cube of a given detector plane (16 x 16 cubes). A combination of Na-22, Cf-252 and AmBe gamma and neutron sources were used by CALIPSO during the quality assurance process. Initially, the scanning identified defective components allowing for repair during initial construction of the SoLid detector. Secondly, a full analysis of the calibration data revealed initial estimations for the light yield of over 60 PA/MeV and neutron reconstruction efficiency of 68%, validating the SoLid physics requirements.
Keywords
Neutrino detectors, Neutron detectors (cold, thermal, fast neutrons), Particle identification methods, Calorimeters

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MLA
Abreu, Y., et al. “Development of a Quality Assurance Process for the SoLid Experiment.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, vol. 14, 2019.
APA
Abreu, Y., Amhis, Y., Ban, G., Beaumont, W., Binet, S., Bongrand, M., … Yermia, F. (2019). Development of a quality assurance process for the SoLid experiment. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, 14.
Chicago author-date
Abreu, Y, Y Amhis, G Ban, W Beaumont, S Binet, M Bongrand, D Boursette, et al. 2019. “Development of a Quality Assurance Process for the SoLid Experiment.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 14.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Abreu, Y, Y Amhis, G Ban, W Beaumont, S Binet, M Bongrand, D Boursette, BC Castle, H Chanal, K Clark, B Coupe, P Crochet, D Cussans, A De Roeck, D Durand, M Fallot, L Ghys, L Giot, K Graves, B Guillon, D Henaff, B Hosseini, S Ihantola, S Jenzer, S Kalcheva, LN Kalousis, Mathieu Labare, G Lehaut, S Manley, L Manzanillas, J Mermans, Ianthe Michiels, S Monteil, Céline Moortgat, D Newbold, J Park, V Pestel, K Petridis, I Pinera, L Popescu, Dirk Ryckbosch, N Ryder, D Saunders, M-H Schune, M Settimo, L Simard, A Vacheret, Giel Vandierendonck, S Van Dyck, P Van Mulders, N Van Remortel, S Vercaemer, M Verstraeten, B Viaud, A Weber, and F Yermia. 2019. “Development of a Quality Assurance Process for the SoLid Experiment.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 14.
Vancouver
1.
Abreu Y, Amhis Y, Ban G, Beaumont W, Binet S, Bongrand M, et al. Development of a quality assurance process for the SoLid experiment. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION. 2019;14.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Abreu et al., “Development of a quality assurance process for the SoLid experiment,” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, vol. 14, 2019.
@article{8620596,
  abstract     = {The SoLid experiment has been designed to search for an oscillation pattern induced by a light sterile neutrino state, utilising the BR2 reactor of SCK circle CEN, in Belgium. 
The detector leverages a new hybrid technology, utilising two distinct scintillators in a cubic array, creating a highly segmented detector volume. A combination of 5 cm cubic polyvinyltoluene cells, with (LiF)-Li-6:ZnS(Ag) sheets on two faces of each cube, facilitate reconstruction of the neutrino signals. Whilst the high granularity provides a powerful toolset to discriminate backgrounds; by itself the segmentation also represents a challenge in terms of homogeneity and calibration, for a consistent detector response. The search for this light sterile neutrino implies a sensitivity to distortions of around O(10)% in the energy spectrum of reactor (v) over bare. Hence, a very good neutron detection efficiency, light yield and homogeneous detector response are critical for data validation. The minimal requirements for the SoLid physics program are a light yield and a neutron detection efficiency larger than 40 PA/MeV/cube and 50% respectively. In order to guarantee these minimal requirements, the collaboration developed a rigorous quality assurance process for all 12800 cubic cells of the detector. To carry out the quality assurance process, an automated calibration system called CALIPSO was designed and constructed. CALIPSO provides precise, automatic placement of radioactive sources in front of each cube of a given detector plane (16 x 16 cubes). A combination of Na-22, Cf-252 and AmBe gamma and neutron sources were used by CALIPSO during the quality assurance process. Initially, the scanning identified defective components allowing for repair during initial construction of the SoLid detector. Secondly, a full analysis of the calibration data revealed initial estimations for the light yield of over 60 PA/MeV and neutron reconstruction efficiency of 68%, validating the SoLid physics requirements.},
  articleno    = {P02014},
  author       = {Abreu, Y and Amhis, Y and Ban, G and Beaumont, W and Binet, S and Bongrand, M and Boursette, D and Castle, BC and Chanal, H and Clark, K and Coupe, B and Crochet, P and Cussans, D and De Roeck, A and Durand, D and Fallot, M and Ghys, L and Giot, L and Graves, K and Guillon, B and Henaff, D and Hosseini, B and Ihantola, S and Jenzer, S and Kalcheva, S and Kalousis, LN and Labare, Mathieu and Lehaut, G and Manley, S and Manzanillas, L and Mermans, J and Michiels, Ianthe and Monteil, S and Moortgat, Céline and Newbold, D and Park, J and Pestel, V and Petridis, K and Pinera, I and Popescu, L and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Ryder, N and Saunders, D and Schune, M-H and Settimo, M and Simard, L and Vacheret, A and Vandierendonck, Giel and Van Dyck, S and Van Mulders, P and Van Remortel, N and Vercaemer, S and Verstraeten, M and Viaud, B and Weber, A and Yermia, F},
  issn         = {1748-0221},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION},
  keywords     = {Neutrino detectors,Neutron detectors (cold,thermal,fast neutrons),Particle identification methods,Calorimeters},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {24},
  title        = {Development of a quality assurance process for the SoLid experiment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/02/P02014},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2019},
}

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