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Detection of the temporal variation of the sun's cosmic ray shadow with the IceCube detector

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Abstract
We report on the observation of a deficit in the cosmic ray flux from the directions of the Moon and Sun with five years of data taken by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Between 2010 May and 2011 May the IceCube detector operated with 79 strings deployed in the glacial ice at the South Pole, and with 86 strings between 2011 May and 2015 May. A binned analysis is used to measure the relative deficit and significance of the cosmic ray shadows. Both the cosmic ray Moon and Sun shadows are detected with high statistical significance (> 10 sigma) for each year. The results for the Moon shadow are consistent with previous analyses and verify the stability of the IceCube detector over time. This work represents the first observation of the Sun shadow with the IceCube detector. We show that the cosmic ray shadow of the Sun varies with time. These results make it possible to study cosmic ray transport near the Sun with future data from IceCube.
Keywords
ANGULAR RESOLUTION, MOON, cosmic rays, ISM: magnetic fields, Moon, Sun: activity, sunspots

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G. et al. “Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun’s Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 872.2 (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., et al. (2019). Detection of the temporal variation of the sun’s cosmic ray shadow with the IceCube detector. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 872(2).
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, D. Altmann, et al. 2019. “Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun’s Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector.” Astrophysical Journal 872 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, D. Altmann, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Barbano, J. P. Barron, S. W. Barwick, V. Baum, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, J. Becker Tjus, K. -H. Becker, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Borner, F. Bos, S. Boser, O. Botner, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, H. -P. Bretz, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, K. Clark, L. Classen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, M. Day, J. P. A. M. de Andre, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, B. Eichmann, P. Eller, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, W. Giang, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hunnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, E. Jacobi, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, P. Kalaczynski, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, A. Keivani, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, M. Kroll, G. Kruckl, S. Kunwar, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, Mathieu Labare, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, K. Leonard, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Maris, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, K. Meagher, M. Medici, M. Meier, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, S. Miarecki, J. Micallef, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, M. Moulai, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, P. Nakarmi, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, P. Peiffer, J. A. Pepper, C. Perez de los Heros, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, S. Schoneberg, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, A. Stasik, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stossl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, M. Sutherland, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, M. N. Tobin, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, Sander Vanheule, J. van Santen, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, F. D. Wandler, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, M. J. Weiss, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, S. Westerhoff, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, E. Woolsey, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, and T. Yuan. 2019. “Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun’s Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector.” Astrophysical Journal 872 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Detection of the temporal variation of the sun’s cosmic ray shadow with the IceCube detector. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2019;872(2).
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Detection of the temporal variation of the sun’s cosmic ray shadow with the IceCube detector,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 872, no. 2, 2019.
@article{8620591,
  abstract     = {We report on the observation of a deficit in the cosmic ray flux from the directions of the Moon and Sun with five years of data taken by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Between 2010 May and 2011 May the IceCube detector operated with 79 strings deployed in the glacial ice at the South Pole, and with 86 strings between 2011 May and 2015 May. A binned analysis is used to measure the relative deficit and significance of the cosmic ray shadows. Both the cosmic ray Moon and Sun shadows are detected with high statistical significance (> 10 sigma) for each year. The results for the Moon shadow are consistent with previous analyses and verify the stability of the IceCube detector over time. This work represents the first observation of the Sun shadow with the IceCube detector. We show that the cosmic ray shadow of the Sun varies with time. These results make it possible to study cosmic ray transport near the Sun with future data from IceCube.},
  articleno    = {133},
  author       = {Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barron, J. P. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Tjus, J. Becker and Becker, K. -H. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Borner, M. and Bos, F. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and Day, M. and de Andre, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Hunnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kalaczynski, P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Kruckl, G. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mancina, S. and Maris, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Meier, M. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Moulai, M. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Peiffer, P. and Pepper, J. A. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schoneberg, S. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stossl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taboada, I. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Toale, P. A. and Tobin, M. N. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vanheule, Sander and van Santen, J. and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandler, F. D. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weiss, M. J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woolsey, E. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T.},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {ANGULAR RESOLUTION,MOON,cosmic rays,ISM: magnetic fields,Moon,Sun: activity,sunspots},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Detection of the temporal variation of the sun's cosmic ray shadow with the IceCube detector},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaffd1},
  volume       = {872},
  year         = {2019},
}

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