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Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe

(2018) NEW PHYTOLOGIST. 218(4). p.1383-1392
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Abstract
Trees scale leaf (A(L)) and xylem (A(X)) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in A(L) : A(X) balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in A(L) : A(X) in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. We analyzed the species and climate effects on the scaling of A(L) vs A(X) in branches of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and broadleaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) sampled across a continental wide transect in Europe. Along the branch axis, A(L) and A(X) change in equal proportion (isometric scaling: b similar to 1) as for trees. Branches of similar length converged in the scaling of A(L) vs A(X) with an exponent of b = 0.58 across European climates irrespective of species. Branches of slow- growing trees from Northern and Southern regions preferentially allocated into new leaf rather than xylem area, with older xylem rings contributing to maintaining total xylem conductivity. In conclusion, trees in contrasting climates adjust their functional balance between water transport and leaf transpiration by maintaining biomass allocation to leaves, and adjusting their growth rate and xylem production to maintain xylem conductance.
Keywords
HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY, SCOTS PINE, XYLEM, DROUGHT, HEIGHT, COORDINATION, ALLOMETRY, SAFETY, CARBON, SIZE, allocation, climate change, functional balance, leaf area, plant, architecture, sapwood, structural balance, xylem

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MLA
Petit, Giai et al. “Tree Differences in Primary and Secondary Growth Drive Convergent Scaling in Leaf Area to Sapwood Area Across Europe.” NEW PHYTOLOGIST 218.4 (2018): 1383–1392. Print.
APA
Petit, G., von Arx, G., Kiorapostolou, N., Lechthaler, S., Prendin, A. L., Anfodillo, T., Caldeira, M. C., et al. (2018). Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe. NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 218(4), 1383–1392.
Chicago author-date
Petit, Giai, Georg von Arx, Natasa Kiorapostolou, Silvia Lechthaler, Angela Luisa Prendin, Tommaso Anfodillo, Maria C Caldeira, et al. 2018. “Tree Differences in Primary and Secondary Growth Drive Convergent Scaling in Leaf Area to Sapwood Area Across Europe.” New Phytologist 218 (4): 1383–1392.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Petit, Giai, Georg von Arx, Natasa Kiorapostolou, Silvia Lechthaler, Angela Luisa Prendin, Tommaso Anfodillo, Maria C Caldeira, Herve Cochard, Paul Copini, Alan Crivellaro, Sylvain Delzon, Roman Gebauer, Jozica Gricar, Leila Gronholm, Teemu Holtta, Tuula Jyske, Martina Lavric, Anna Lintunen, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Mikko Peltoniemi, Richard L Peters, Elisabeth MR Robert, Silvia Roig Juan, Martin Senfeldr, Kathy Steppe, Josef Urban, Janne Van Camp, and Frank Sterck. 2018. “Tree Differences in Primary and Secondary Growth Drive Convergent Scaling in Leaf Area to Sapwood Area Across Europe.” New Phytologist 218 (4): 1383–1392.
Vancouver
1.
Petit G, von Arx G, Kiorapostolou N, Lechthaler S, Prendin AL, Anfodillo T, et al. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe. NEW PHYTOLOGIST. 2018;218(4):1383–92.
IEEE
[1]
G. Petit et al., “Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe,” NEW PHYTOLOGIST, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 1383–1392, 2018.
@article{8619024,
  abstract     = {Trees scale leaf (A(L)) and xylem (A(X)) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in A(L) : A(X) balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in A(L) : A(X) in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. 
We analyzed the species and climate effects on the scaling of A(L) vs A(X) in branches of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and broadleaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) sampled across a continental wide transect in Europe. 
Along the branch axis, A(L) and A(X) change in equal proportion (isometric scaling: b similar to 1) as for trees. Branches of similar length converged in the scaling of A(L) vs A(X) with an exponent of b = 0.58 across European climates irrespective of species. Branches of slow- growing trees from Northern and Southern regions preferentially allocated into new leaf rather than xylem area, with older xylem rings contributing to maintaining total xylem conductivity. 
In conclusion, trees in contrasting climates adjust their functional balance between water transport and leaf transpiration by maintaining biomass allocation to leaves, and adjusting their growth rate and xylem production to maintain xylem conductance.},
  author       = {Petit, Giai and von Arx, Georg and Kiorapostolou, Natasa and Lechthaler, Silvia and Prendin, Angela Luisa and Anfodillo, Tommaso and Caldeira, Maria C and Cochard, Herve and Copini, Paul and Crivellaro, Alan and Delzon, Sylvain and Gebauer, Roman and Gricar, Jozica and Gronholm, Leila and Holtta, Teemu and Jyske, Tuula and Lavric, Martina and Lintunen, Anna and Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel and Peltoniemi, Mikko and Peters, Richard L and Robert, Elisabeth MR and Juan, Silvia Roig and Senfeldr, Martin and Steppe, Kathy and Urban, Josef and Van Camp, Janne and Sterck, Frank},
  issn         = {0028-646X},
  journal      = {NEW PHYTOLOGIST},
  keywords     = {HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY,SCOTS PINE,XYLEM,DROUGHT,HEIGHT,COORDINATION,ALLOMETRY,SAFETY,CARBON,SIZE,allocation,climate change,functional balance,leaf area,plant,architecture,sapwood,structural balance,xylem},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1383--1392},
  title        = {Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15118},
  volume       = {218},
  year         = {2018},
}

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