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Pd nanoparticle and molecular Pd2+ leaching pathways for a strongly acid versus strongly basic resin supported Pd nanoparticle catalyst in Suzuki coupling

Beau Van Vaerenbergh (UGent) , Jeroen Lauwaert (UGent) , Joris Thybaut (UGent) , Pieter Vermeir (UGent) and Jeriffa De Clercq (UGent)
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Abstract
The Pd leaching behaviour of a strongly acid (Lewatit K2629) versus strongly basic (Lewatit MP500 OH) ion exchange resin supported Pd nanoparticle (Pd-NP) catalyst is elucidated in the Suzuki reaction between iodobenzene and phenylboronic acid with K2CO3 as base in 1:1 (v/v) DMF/H2O at 40 °C. Reaction and leaching kinetic analyses combined with hot filtration tests indicated heterogeneous-homogeneous catalysis for both Pd-NP catalysts. More particularly, leaching experiments showed that for Pd-NP Lewatit K2629, Pd-NP as well as molecular Pd2+ leaching (as phenylpalladium(II)hydroxide complexes) occurred due to, respectively, the disturbance of the electrostatic NP stabilization by dissociated K2CO3 and reaction with iodobenzene and hydroxide. For Pd-NP Lewatit MP500 OH, however, molecular Pd2+ leaching induced by iodobenzene, dominates. Hence, the resin functionality determines the contribution of each leaching pathway. Furthermore, at high conversions, Pd re-deposition occurred due to the decreased amount of leaching inducing reagents causing enlarged NPs in the resin which leached less in subsequent runs.
Keywords
Supported nanoparticle catalysts, Palladium nanoparticles, Ion exchange resins, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, Leaching mechanisms

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MLA
Van Vaerenbergh, Beau et al. “Pd Nanoparticle and Molecular Pd2+ Leaching Pathways for a Strongly Acid Versus Strongly Basic Resin Supported Pd Nanoparticle Catalyst in Suzuki Coupling.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL 374 (2019): 576–588. Print.
APA
Van Vaerenbergh, Beau, Lauwaert, J., Thybaut, J., Vermeir, P., & De Clercq, J. (2019). Pd nanoparticle and molecular Pd2+ leaching pathways for a strongly acid versus strongly basic resin supported Pd nanoparticle catalyst in Suzuki coupling. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 374, 576–588.
Chicago author-date
Van Vaerenbergh, Beau, Jeroen Lauwaert, Joris Thybaut, Pieter Vermeir, and Jeriffa De Clercq. 2019. “Pd Nanoparticle and Molecular Pd2+ Leaching Pathways for a Strongly Acid Versus Strongly Basic Resin Supported Pd Nanoparticle Catalyst in Suzuki Coupling.” Chemical Engineering Journal 374: 576–588.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Vaerenbergh, Beau, Jeroen Lauwaert, Joris Thybaut, Pieter Vermeir, and Jeriffa De Clercq. 2019. “Pd Nanoparticle and Molecular Pd2+ Leaching Pathways for a Strongly Acid Versus Strongly Basic Resin Supported Pd Nanoparticle Catalyst in Suzuki Coupling.” Chemical Engineering Journal 374: 576–588.
Vancouver
1.
Van Vaerenbergh B, Lauwaert J, Thybaut J, Vermeir P, De Clercq J. Pd nanoparticle and molecular Pd2+ leaching pathways for a strongly acid versus strongly basic resin supported Pd nanoparticle catalyst in Suzuki coupling. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL. Elsevier; 2019;374:576–88.
IEEE
[1]
B. Van Vaerenbergh, J. Lauwaert, J. Thybaut, P. Vermeir, and J. De Clercq, “Pd nanoparticle and molecular Pd2+ leaching pathways for a strongly acid versus strongly basic resin supported Pd nanoparticle catalyst in Suzuki coupling,” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol. 374, pp. 576–588, 2019.
@article{8618631,
  abstract     = {The Pd leaching behaviour of a strongly acid (Lewatit K2629) versus strongly basic (Lewatit MP500 OH) ion exchange resin supported Pd nanoparticle (Pd-NP) catalyst is elucidated in the Suzuki reaction between iodobenzene and phenylboronic acid with K2CO3 as base in 1:1 (v/v) DMF/H2O at 40 °C. Reaction and leaching kinetic analyses combined with hot filtration tests indicated heterogeneous-homogeneous catalysis for both Pd-NP catalysts. More particularly, leaching experiments showed that for Pd-NP Lewatit K2629, Pd-NP as well as molecular Pd2+ leaching (as phenylpalladium(II)hydroxide complexes) occurred due to, respectively, the disturbance of the electrostatic NP stabilization by dissociated K2CO3 and reaction with iodobenzene and hydroxide. For Pd-NP Lewatit MP500 OH, however, molecular Pd2+ leaching induced by iodobenzene, dominates. Hence, the resin functionality determines the contribution of each leaching pathway. Furthermore, at high conversions, Pd re-deposition occurred due to the decreased amount of leaching inducing reagents causing enlarged NPs in the resin which leached less in subsequent runs.},
  author       = {Van Vaerenbergh, Beau and Lauwaert, Jeroen and Thybaut, Joris and Vermeir, Pieter and De Clercq, Jeriffa},
  issn         = {1385-8947 },
  journal      = {CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Supported nanoparticle catalysts,Palladium nanoparticles,Ion exchange resins,Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction,Leaching mechanisms},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {576--588},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  title        = {Pd nanoparticle and molecular Pd2+ leaching pathways for a strongly acid versus strongly basic resin supported Pd nanoparticle catalyst in Suzuki coupling},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.05.197},
  volume       = {374},
  year         = {2019},
}

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