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Functional brain alterations in low back pain : a systematic review of EEG studies

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Organization
Abstract
Although low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Research has shifted from examining solely peripheral factors to studying possible central mechanisms. Neuroplastic brain alterations can occur when pain becomes persistent. While evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in LBP assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging has already been summarized, evidence regarding functional brain changes in LBP measured using electroencephalography (EEG) remains unclear. Methods. This systematic review analyzed the available literature on functional brain alterations in LBP measured with EEG. Four electronic databases were systematically searched the 1 of March 218, resulting in 12 included studies. Studies showed a risk of bias of 37.5%-75% using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for case-control studies. Results. Limited evidence was found regarding increased EEG-amplitude of several balance-related potentials, and early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to noxious stimuli in chronic LBP (CLBP). Furthermore, smaller feedback-related negativity and P3 potentials were observed during decision-making tasks in CLBP. Late-phase SEPs to noxious stimuli and auditory evoked potentials do not seem to be altered in LBP, whereas ambiguous results were found regarding the P26 SEP. Discussion. Most studies examined non-specific or mixed CLBP populations, hence little to no evidence is present regarding EEG-quantified brain activity in (sub)acute or recurrent LBP. These findings suggest altered decision making processes in CLBP and postural strategies requiring a higher cortical attention-demand. Furthermore, limited evidence for decreased habituation to painful and auditory stimuli was found. This review increases the understanding of the LBP brain and directs future EEG-research in LBP. Process evaluation. Despite these findings further research regarding functional brain changes with EEG is recommended. More specifically, different types of LBP and less heterogeneous LBP populations, as well as other functional tasks still need to be examined.
Keywords
EEG, electroencephalography, low back pain

Citation

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MLA
Schouppe, Stijn et al. “Functional Brain Alterations in Low Back Pain : a Systematic Review of EEG Studies.” Pain Science in Motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019. 2019. Print.
APA
Schouppe, S., Van Oosterwijck, S., Danneels, L., Van Damme, S., & Van Oosterwijck, J. (2019). Functional brain alterations in low back pain : a systematic review of EEG studies. Pain science in motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019. Presented at the 3rd Pain Science in Motion international and interdisciplinary colloquium on research methods in pain sciences.
Chicago author-date
Schouppe, Stijn, Sophie Van Oosterwijck, Lieven Danneels, Stefaan Van Damme, and Jessica Van Oosterwijck. 2019. “Functional Brain Alterations in Low Back Pain : a Systematic Review of EEG Studies.” In Pain Science in Motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schouppe, Stijn, Sophie Van Oosterwijck, Lieven Danneels, Stefaan Van Damme, and Jessica Van Oosterwijck. 2019. “Functional Brain Alterations in Low Back Pain : a Systematic Review of EEG Studies.” In Pain Science in Motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019.
Vancouver
1.
Schouppe S, Van Oosterwijck S, Danneels L, Van Damme S, Van Oosterwijck J. Functional brain alterations in low back pain : a systematic review of EEG studies. Pain science in motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019. 2019.
IEEE
[1]
S. Schouppe, S. Van Oosterwijck, L. Danneels, S. Van Damme, and J. Van Oosterwijck, “Functional brain alterations in low back pain : a systematic review of EEG studies,” in Pain science in motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019, Savona, Italy, 2019.
@inproceedings{8618560,
  abstract     = {Although low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Research has shifted from examining solely peripheral factors to studying possible central mechanisms. Neuroplastic brain alterations can occur when pain becomes persistent. While evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in LBP assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging has already been summarized, evidence regarding functional brain changes in LBP measured using electroencephalography (EEG) remains unclear. Methods. This systematic review analyzed the available literature on functional brain alterations in LBP measured with EEG. Four electronic databases were systematically searched the 1 of March 218, resulting in 12 included studies. Studies showed a risk of bias of 37.5%-75% using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for case-control studies. Results. Limited evidence was found regarding increased EEG-amplitude of several balance-related potentials, and early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to noxious stimuli in chronic LBP (CLBP). Furthermore, smaller feedback-related negativity and P3 potentials were observed during decision-making tasks in CLBP. Late-phase SEPs to noxious stimuli and auditory evoked potentials do not seem to be altered in LBP, whereas ambiguous results were found regarding the P26 SEP. Discussion. Most studies examined non-specific or mixed CLBP populations, hence little to no evidence is present regarding EEG-quantified brain activity in (sub)acute or recurrent LBP. These findings suggest altered decision making processes in CLBP and postural strategies requiring a higher cortical attention-demand. Furthermore, limited evidence for decreased habituation to painful and auditory stimuli was found. This review increases the understanding of the LBP brain and directs future EEG-research in LBP. Process evaluation. Despite these findings further research regarding functional brain changes with EEG is recommended. More specifically, different types of LBP and less heterogeneous LBP populations, as well as other functional tasks still need to be examined.},
  author       = {Schouppe, Stijn and Van Oosterwijck, Sophie and Danneels, Lieven and Van Damme, Stefaan and Van Oosterwijck, Jessica},
  booktitle    = {Pain science in motion III : Savona University Campus, May 31st-June 2nd, 2019},
  keywords     = {EEG,electroencephalography,low back pain},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Savona, Italy},
  title        = {Functional brain alterations in low back pain : a systematic review of EEG studies},
  year         = {2019},
}