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Dynamics of volatile compounds and flavor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fine flavor Trinitario cocoa beans

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Abstract
Fine flavor cocoa is worldwide renowned to produce origin chocolates with special aromas, e.g. fruity or floral, in addition to its chocolate aroma. This research aims to elucidate fine flavor dynamics during fermentation by analyzing the sugar, free amino acid (FAA) and volatile profile. Ecuadorian Trinitario beans (Sacha Gold) were sampled after 0, 18, 24, 48 and 66 h of spontaneous fermentation. The unfermented beans contained significant sucrose, glutamic acid and asparagine amounts while the fermented beans (66 h) contained more flavor precursors, e.g. glucose, fructose, hydrophobic and other FAA. Forty-one volatiles were identified, including 13 fruity- and 12 floral-like, derived from various metabolic pathways. Whereas the level of fatty acid-derived fruity volatiles decreased, the amount of amino acid-derived fruity and floral volatiles increased and floral terpenes remained stable. Some fine volatiles were assumed to be pulp-derived (e.g. linalool, beta-myrcene, 2-heptyl acetate) or intrinsic to the bean (e.g. 2-heptanol, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanol), while others were generated during fermentation by microbial synthesis (e.g. 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl alcohol). Multivariate analysis clustered samples according to fermentation time and quality. These findings demonstrate that cocoa fermentation is essential for the formation of flavor precursors and the development or preservation of important fine aroma compounds. Trinitario (or hybrids), one of the cocoa varieties with fine flavor potential, is cultivated all over the world and hence, care should be taken during post-harvest to fully exploit this fine flavor character and deliver high-quality cocoa beans with fine sensory characteristics.
Keywords
Cocoa bean fermentation, Fine flavor, Sugars, Free amino acids, Aroma profile, Ecuador, THEOBROMA-CACAO L., FREE AMINO-ACID, MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES, AROMA PRECURSORS, PEPTIDE-N, QUALITY, IMPACT, SUGAR, TEMPERATURE, FORASTERO

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MLA
Rottiers, Hayley, et al. “Dynamics of Volatile Compounds and Flavor Precursors during Spontaneous Fermentation of Fine Flavor Trinitario Cocoa Beans.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 245, no. 9, 2019, pp. 1917–37, doi:10.1007/s00217-019-03307-y.
APA
Rottiers, H., Tzompa Sosa, D. A., De Winne, A., Ruales, J., De Clippeleer, J., De Leersnyder, I., … Dewettinck, K. (2019). Dynamics of volatile compounds and flavor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fine flavor Trinitario cocoa beans. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 245(9), 1917–1937. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03307-y
Chicago author-date
Rottiers, Hayley, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Ann De Winne, Jenny Ruales, Jessika De Clippeleer, Ilse De Leersnyder, Jocelyn De Wever, Helena Everaert, Kathy Messens, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Dynamics of Volatile Compounds and Flavor Precursors during Spontaneous Fermentation of Fine Flavor Trinitario Cocoa Beans.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 245 (9): 1917–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03307-y.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rottiers, Hayley, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Ann De Winne, Jenny Ruales, Jessika De Clippeleer, Ilse De Leersnyder, Jocelyn De Wever, Helena Everaert, Kathy Messens, and Koen Dewettinck. 2019. “Dynamics of Volatile Compounds and Flavor Precursors during Spontaneous Fermentation of Fine Flavor Trinitario Cocoa Beans.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 245 (9): 1917–1937. doi:10.1007/s00217-019-03307-y.
Vancouver
1.
Rottiers H, Tzompa Sosa DA, De Winne A, Ruales J, De Clippeleer J, De Leersnyder I, et al. Dynamics of volatile compounds and flavor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fine flavor Trinitario cocoa beans. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2019;245(9):1917–37.
IEEE
[1]
H. Rottiers et al., “Dynamics of volatile compounds and flavor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fine flavor Trinitario cocoa beans,” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 245, no. 9, pp. 1917–1937, 2019.
@article{8618543,
  abstract     = {{Fine flavor cocoa is worldwide renowned to produce origin chocolates with special aromas, e.g. fruity or floral, in addition to its chocolate aroma. This research aims to elucidate fine flavor dynamics during fermentation by analyzing the sugar, free amino acid (FAA) and volatile profile. Ecuadorian Trinitario beans (Sacha Gold) were sampled after 0, 18, 24, 48 and 66 h of spontaneous fermentation. The unfermented beans contained significant sucrose, glutamic acid and asparagine amounts while the fermented beans (66 h) contained more flavor precursors, e.g. glucose, fructose, hydrophobic and other FAA. Forty-one volatiles were identified, including 13 fruity- and 12 floral-like, derived from various metabolic pathways. Whereas the level of fatty acid-derived fruity volatiles decreased, the amount of amino acid-derived fruity and floral volatiles increased and floral terpenes remained stable. Some fine volatiles were assumed to be pulp-derived (e.g. linalool, beta-myrcene, 2-heptyl acetate) or intrinsic to the bean (e.g. 2-heptanol, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanol), while others were generated during fermentation by microbial synthesis (e.g. 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl alcohol). Multivariate analysis clustered samples according to fermentation time and quality. These findings demonstrate that cocoa fermentation is essential for the formation of flavor precursors and the development or preservation of important fine aroma compounds. Trinitario (or hybrids), one of the cocoa varieties with fine flavor potential, is cultivated all over the world and hence, care should be taken during post-harvest to fully exploit this fine flavor character and deliver high-quality cocoa beans with fine sensory characteristics.}},
  author       = {{Rottiers, Hayley and Tzompa-Sosa, Daylan A. and De Winne, Ann and Ruales, Jenny and De Clippeleer, Jessika and De Leersnyder, Ilse and De Wever, Jocelyn and Everaert, Helena and Messens, Kathy and Dewettinck, Koen}},
  issn         = {{1438-2377}},
  journal      = {{EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Cocoa bean fermentation,Fine flavor,Sugars,Free amino acids,Aroma profile,Ecuador,THEOBROMA-CACAO L.,FREE AMINO-ACID,MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES,AROMA PRECURSORS,PEPTIDE-N,QUALITY,IMPACT,SUGAR,TEMPERATURE,FORASTERO}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{1917--1937}},
  title        = {{Dynamics of volatile compounds and flavor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fine flavor Trinitario cocoa beans}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03307-y}},
  volume       = {{245}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}

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