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The last two decades, considerable research has been intrigued by the study of teacher efficacy and its influence on students’ motivation and achievement. Studies have indicated that teacher efficacy influences teachers’ effort to encounter classroom difficulties and the academic performances of students (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016). Since most authors use a pedagogical or psychological approach to investigate the concept of teacher efficacy, there is a lack of sociological research that handles this concept. A more sociological view can be clarifying as it is known that the school context affects both teachers and students (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016; Goddard & Goddard, 2001; Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). Through pedagogical and psychological research, we know which teacher characteristics affect teacher efficacy, nevertheless, classroom or school characteristics are largely overlooked in studies on teacher efficacy (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Labone, 2004; Yoon, 2002). Yet, school characteristics are easier to alter than teacher characteristics. Knoblauch and Hoy (2008) report that teachers’ sense of efficacy is not uniform across school settings. For example, teachers can feel more efficacious in calm, rural schools and less efficacious in dense urban schools (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008). Fackler and Malmberg (2016) confirm that in teacher efficacy research, most of the unexplained variance is between schools. Those differences between schools are still a ‘black box’ and research concerning teacher efficacy is urging for more studies that include school characteristics. Goddard and Goddard (2001) believe that it is important to understand the relationship between several school contextual variables and teacher efficacy. So far, very few studies concerning teacher outcomes include external obstacles, such as the socioeconomic student composition of the school (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016; Van Houtte, 2011). Those contextual factors, and possible effects on teacher efficacy, obviously need further research. We already know that students are affected in several ways by the socioeconomic composition of the school (Sellström & Bremberg, 2006; Van Eycken, 2018), but we know little about how this composition can affect teachers and their self-efficacy. The socioeconomic composition seems a possible predictor of teacher efficacy in a few studies (Auwarter & Aruguete, 2008), where teachers in schools with a high proportion of low-SES students score lower on self-efficacy. The ethnic diversity of schools affects teacher efficacy as well, since teachers experience a more diverse classroom as more demanding (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008). Other studies suggest that gender (composition) matters since low-efficacy feelings appear when teaching, especially, low-SES boys (Auwarter & Aruguete, 2008). Teaching mostly low-SES students has a negative effect on teacher efficacy and the effect will be even stronger when teaching mainly low-SES boys. Auwarter and Aruguete (2008) suggest an interaction between gender composition and socioeconomic composition for teachers’ sense of efficacy, and an interaction between socioeconomic composition and the individual SES of the teacher for their sense of efficacy as well, however, they only tested this for teacher expectations. Since not many studies have encountered compositional effects to analyze teacher efficacy, scholars are increasingly urging for more focus on composition, such as schools’ socioeconomic student composition and gender composition (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016). Moreover, teacher outcomes are often overlooked in research concerning effects of school composition (Van Houtte, 2011). In response to this gap, this study will combine individual teacher characteristics and school characteristics based on aggregated student characteristics. This study will focus on the effect of the socioeconomic student composition and gender composition on teacher efficacy, controlling for ethnic composition of the school. To reveal the influence of those contextual factors, a multilevel approach will be used.
Keywords
Socioeconomic composition, Gender composition, School effects, Teacher efficacy, SES

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MLA
Van Eycken, Lennart, and Mieke Van Houtte. “Where Is Sociology in Teacher Efficacy Research? The Influence of the School Composition.” ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an Era of Risk : The Role of Educational Research for the Future, Papers, 2019.
APA
Van Eycken, L., & Van Houtte, M. (2019). Where is sociology in teacher efficacy research? The influence of the school composition. In ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an era of risk : the role of educational research for the future, Papers. Hamburg.
Chicago author-date
Van Eycken, Lennart, and Mieke Van Houtte. 2019. “Where Is Sociology in Teacher Efficacy Research? The Influence of the School Composition.” In ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an Era of Risk : The Role of Educational Research for the Future, Papers.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Eycken, Lennart, and Mieke Van Houtte. 2019. “Where Is Sociology in Teacher Efficacy Research? The Influence of the School Composition.” In ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an Era of Risk : The Role of Educational Research for the Future, Papers.
Vancouver
1.
Van Eycken L, Van Houtte M. Where is sociology in teacher efficacy research? The influence of the school composition. In: ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an era of risk : the role of educational research for the future, Papers. 2019.
IEEE
[1]
L. Van Eycken and M. Van Houtte, “Where is sociology in teacher efficacy research? The influence of the school composition,” in ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an era of risk : the role of educational research for the future, Papers, Hamburg, 2019.
@inproceedings{8618253,
  abstract     = {{The last two decades, considerable research has been intrigued by the study of teacher efficacy and its influence on students’ motivation and achievement. Studies have indicated that teacher efficacy influences teachers’ effort to encounter classroom difficulties and the academic performances of students (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016). Since most authors use a pedagogical or psychological approach to investigate the concept of teacher efficacy, there is a lack of sociological research that handles this concept. A more sociological view can be clarifying as it is known that the school context affects both teachers and students (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016; Goddard & Goddard, 2001; Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). Through pedagogical and psychological research, we know which teacher characteristics affect teacher efficacy, nevertheless, classroom or school characteristics are largely overlooked in studies on teacher efficacy (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Labone, 2004; Yoon, 2002). Yet, school characteristics are easier to alter than teacher characteristics. Knoblauch and Hoy (2008) report that teachers’ sense of efficacy is not uniform across school settings. For example, teachers can feel more efficacious in calm, rural schools and less efficacious in dense urban schools (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008). Fackler and Malmberg (2016) confirm that in teacher efficacy research, most of the unexplained variance is between schools. Those differences between schools are still a ‘black box’ and research concerning teacher efficacy is urging for more studies that include school characteristics. Goddard and Goddard (2001) believe that it is important to understand the relationship between several school contextual variables and teacher efficacy. So far, very few studies concerning teacher outcomes include external obstacles, such as the socioeconomic student composition of the school (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016; Van Houtte, 2011). Those contextual factors, and possible effects on teacher efficacy, obviously need further research. 
We already know that students are affected in several ways by the socioeconomic composition of the school (Sellström & Bremberg, 2006; Van Eycken, 2018), but we know little about how this composition can affect teachers and their self-efficacy. The socioeconomic composition seems a possible predictor of teacher efficacy in a few studies (Auwarter & Aruguete, 2008), where teachers in schools with a high proportion of low-SES students score lower on self-efficacy. The ethnic diversity of schools affects teacher efficacy as well, since teachers experience a more diverse classroom as more demanding (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008). Other studies suggest that gender (composition) matters since low-efficacy feelings appear when teaching, especially, low-SES boys (Auwarter & Aruguete, 2008). Teaching mostly low-SES students has a negative effect on teacher efficacy and the effect will be even stronger when teaching mainly low-SES boys. Auwarter and Aruguete (2008) suggest an interaction between gender composition and socioeconomic composition for teachers’ sense of efficacy, and an interaction between socioeconomic composition and the individual SES of the teacher for their sense of efficacy as well, however, they only tested this for teacher expectations.
Since not many studies have encountered compositional effects to analyze teacher efficacy, scholars are increasingly urging for more focus on composition, such as schools’ socioeconomic student composition and gender composition (Fackler & Malmberg, 2016). Moreover, teacher outcomes are often overlooked in research concerning effects of school composition (Van Houtte, 2011). In response to this gap, this study will combine individual teacher characteristics and school characteristics based on aggregated student characteristics. This study will focus on the effect of the socioeconomic student composition and gender composition on teacher efficacy, controlling for ethnic composition of the school. To reveal the influence of those contextual factors, a multilevel approach will be used.}},
  author       = {{Van Eycken, Lennart and Van Houtte, Mieke}},
  booktitle    = {{ECER 2019, European Conference on Educational Research, Education in an era of risk : the role of educational research for the future, Papers}},
  keywords     = {{Socioeconomic composition,Gender composition,School effects,Teacher efficacy,SES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Hamburg}},
  pages        = {{4}},
  title        = {{Where is sociology in teacher efficacy research? The influence of the school composition}},
  year         = {{2019}},
}