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Reduction of pesticide residues from teff (Eragrostis tef) flour spiked with selected pesticides using household food processing steps

(2019) HELIYON. 5(5).
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Abstract
Teff (Eragrostis tef) is an ancient cereal that is indigenous from Ethiopia. Nowadays, teff grain is becoming popular to many parts of the world. Teff is gluten-free in nature, has high iron and fiber content, and many other health benefits make this crop interesting to many consumers. Since no insect pests are attacking the teff grains, farmers do not apply pesticides on it, unlike maize and other grains. Nevertheless, residues of organochlorine pesticides have been detected at an alarming level that could pose a consumer risk. Teff is often consumed as injera which is a fermented flat pancake. The main aim of the present study is, therefore, to investigate the effect of household food processing (doughing and baking) on the reduction of pesticide residues from teff. Pesticide residues previously detected in teff grain such as permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDT were spiked and extracted followed by the subsequent household processing which are generally doughing (dough making followed by fermentation) and baking. From the findings of this study, doughing decrease the pesticide residues in the range of 59.9-86.4% and baking in the range of 63.2-90.2%. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicates that the reduction of pesticide residues by baking is significantly different from doughing (p-value < 0.0001). There is also a significant difference between non-fermented and fermented dough (p-value = 0.012). The processing factor for doughing and baking was less than one (PF < 1 = reduction factor) which indicates the reduction of pesticides due to teff processing. The cumulative effect of these processing methods is important to evaluate the risks associated with the ingestion of pesticides, particularly in teff grain.
Keywords
Food science, Food safety, Chemistry, FERMENTATION, DISSIPATION, STABILITY, QUALITY, FRUITS, MAIZE, WHEAT, RISK

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Citation

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MLA
Mekonen, Seblework, Argaw Ambelu, and Pieter Spanoghe. “Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Teff (Eragrostis Tef) Flour Spiked with Selected Pesticides Using Household Food Processing Steps.” HELIYON 5.5 (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Mekonen, S., Ambelu, A., & Spanoghe, P. (2019). Reduction of pesticide residues from teff (Eragrostis tef) flour spiked with selected pesticides using household food processing steps. HELIYON, 5(5).
Chicago author-date
Mekonen, Seblework, Argaw Ambelu, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2019. “Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Teff (Eragrostis Tef) Flour Spiked with Selected Pesticides Using Household Food Processing Steps.” Heliyon 5 (5).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mekonen, Seblework, Argaw Ambelu, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2019. “Reduction of Pesticide Residues from Teff (Eragrostis Tef) Flour Spiked with Selected Pesticides Using Household Food Processing Steps.” Heliyon 5 (5).
Vancouver
1.
Mekonen S, Ambelu A, Spanoghe P. Reduction of pesticide residues from teff (Eragrostis tef) flour spiked with selected pesticides using household food processing steps. HELIYON. 2019;5(5).
IEEE
[1]
S. Mekonen, A. Ambelu, and P. Spanoghe, “Reduction of pesticide residues from teff (Eragrostis tef) flour spiked with selected pesticides using household food processing steps,” HELIYON, vol. 5, no. 5, 2019.
@article{8617818,
  abstract     = {Teff (Eragrostis tef) is an ancient cereal that is indigenous from Ethiopia. Nowadays, teff grain is becoming popular to many parts of the world. Teff is gluten-free in nature, has high iron and fiber content, and many other health benefits make this crop interesting to many consumers. Since no insect pests are attacking the teff grains, farmers do not apply pesticides on it, unlike maize and other grains. Nevertheless, residues of organochlorine pesticides have been detected at an alarming level that could pose a consumer risk. Teff is often consumed as injera which is a fermented flat pancake. The main aim of the present study is, therefore, to investigate the effect of household food processing (doughing and baking) on the reduction of pesticide residues from teff. Pesticide residues previously detected in teff grain such as permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDT were spiked and extracted followed by the subsequent household processing which are generally doughing (dough making followed by fermentation) and baking. From the findings of this study, doughing decrease the pesticide residues in the range of 59.9-86.4% and baking in the range of 63.2-90.2%. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicates that the reduction of pesticide residues by baking is significantly different from doughing (p-value < 0.0001). There is also a significant difference between non-fermented and fermented dough (p-value = 0.012). The processing factor for doughing and baking was less than one (PF < 1 = reduction factor) which indicates the reduction of pesticides due to teff processing. The cumulative effect of these processing methods is important to evaluate the risks associated with the ingestion of pesticides, particularly in teff grain.},
  articleno    = {e01740},
  author       = {Mekonen, Seblework and Ambelu, Argaw and Spanoghe, Pieter},
  issn         = {2405-8440},
  journal      = {HELIYON},
  keywords     = {Food science,Food safety,Chemistry,FERMENTATION,DISSIPATION,STABILITY,QUALITY,FRUITS,MAIZE,WHEAT,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {Reduction of pesticide residues from teff (Eragrostis tef) flour spiked with selected pesticides using household food processing steps},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01740},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2019},
}

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