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Sustainable in situ remediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater with controlled release materials : a review

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Abstract
The removal of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater is a challenge being faced around the world. Achieving effective long-term remediation of contaminated aquifers faces a variety of significant issues such as back diffusion, tailing, and rebound. In recent years, some researchers have proposed the use of controlled release materials (CRMs) as a new approach to counteracting such issues. The novelty of CRMs lies in that they release their active products slowly, over prolonged periods of time, in order to sustain in situ treatments and long-term effectiveness. Here we review the main constituents of CRMs, analyze their production, characterization, and applications, with a focus on reaction mechanisms, effectiveness, and secondary effects. This review shows that the reactive components of CRMs most commonly involve either: (i) chemical oxidants to treat contaminants such as TCE, PCE, BTEX, and 1,4-Dioxane; (ii) sources of dissolved oxygen to stimulate aerobic biodegradation of contaminants such as BTEX and 1,4-Dioxane; or, (iii) substrates that stimulate reductive dechlorination of contaminants such as TCE and 1,2-DCA. It was found that in some studies, CRMs provided sustained delivery of CRM treatment reagents over several years, and achieved complete contaminant removal. However, lower removal rates were apparent in other cases, which may be ascribed to insufficient dispersion in the subsurface. There are a relatively limited number of field-scale applications of CRMs in contaminated land remediation. Those conducted to date suggest that CRMs could prove to be an effective future remediation strategy. Lessons learned from field applications, suggestions for future research directions, and conclusions are put forward in this review.
Keywords
Slow release materials, Controlled release, Groundwater remediation, Bioremediation, In-situ chemical oxidation, ZERO-VALENT IRON, PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS, LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT, CHEMICAL OXIDATION, POTASSIUM-PERMANGANATE, CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER, BACK-DIFFUSION, PVA-ALGINATE, SOURCE-ZONE, TCE

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Citation

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Chicago
O’Connor, David, Deyi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Yinan Song, Ajit K Sarmah, Xuanru Li, and Filip Tack. 2018. “Sustainable in Situ Remediation of Recalcitrant Organic Pollutants in Groundwater with Controlled Release Materials : a Review.” Journal of Controlled Release 283: 200–213.
APA
O’Connor, D., Hou, D., Ok, Y. S., Song, Y., Sarmah, A. K., Li, X., & Tack, F. (2018). Sustainable in situ remediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater with controlled release materials : a review. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, 283, 200–213.
Vancouver
1.
O’Connor D, Hou D, Ok YS, Song Y, Sarmah AK, Li X, et al. Sustainable in situ remediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater with controlled release materials : a review. JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE. 2018;283:200–13.
MLA
O’Connor, David et al. “Sustainable in Situ Remediation of Recalcitrant Organic Pollutants in Groundwater with Controlled Release Materials : a Review.” JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE 283 (2018): 200–213. Print.
@article{8617665,
  abstract     = {The removal of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater is a challenge being faced around the world. Achieving effective long-term remediation of contaminated aquifers faces a variety of significant issues such as back diffusion, tailing, and rebound. In recent years, some researchers have proposed the use of controlled release materials (CRMs) as a new approach to counteracting such issues. The novelty of CRMs lies in that they release their active products slowly, over prolonged periods of time, in order to sustain in situ treatments and long-term effectiveness. Here we review the main constituents of CRMs, analyze their production, characterization, and applications, with a focus on reaction mechanisms, effectiveness, and secondary effects. This review shows that the reactive components of CRMs most commonly involve either: (i) chemical oxidants to treat contaminants such as TCE, PCE, BTEX, and 1,4-Dioxane; (ii) sources of dissolved oxygen to stimulate aerobic biodegradation of contaminants such as BTEX and 1,4-Dioxane; or, (iii) substrates that stimulate reductive dechlorination of contaminants such as TCE and 1,2-DCA. It was found that in some studies, CRMs provided sustained delivery of CRM treatment reagents over several years, and achieved complete contaminant removal. However, lower removal rates were apparent in other cases, which may be ascribed to insufficient dispersion in the subsurface. There are a relatively limited number of field-scale applications of CRMs in contaminated land remediation. Those conducted to date suggest that CRMs could prove to be an effective future remediation strategy. Lessons learned from field applications, suggestions for future research directions, and conclusions are put forward in this review.},
  author       = {O'Connor, David and Hou, Deyi and Ok, Yong Sik and Song, Yinan and Sarmah, Ajit K and Li, Xuanru and Tack, Filip},
  issn         = {0168-3659},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE},
  keywords     = {Slow release materials,Controlled release,Groundwater remediation,Bioremediation,In-situ chemical oxidation,ZERO-VALENT IRON,PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS,LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT,CHEMICAL OXIDATION,POTASSIUM-PERMANGANATE,CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER,BACK-DIFFUSION,PVA-ALGINATE,SOURCE-ZONE,TCE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {200--213},
  title        = {Sustainable in situ remediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in groundwater with controlled release materials : a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.06.007},
  volume       = {283},
  year         = {2018},
}

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